Updated October 1, 2011

A Play-by-Email Game of Warfare and Conquest in the Ancient Mediterranean


If you wish to discuss the rules with others, its a good idea to join the discussion group, which you can do at the game webpage:


If you have found a problem in the rules, and you think the Rulebook should be corrected, write to the moderator at: gm@agegames.co.uk

You can ctrl+click on the hyperlinks to go straight to a chapter or section Ė Iíve offset some of the links so that you donít accidentally hit the wrong one.

Chapter 1: Introduction tutorial, mechanics of sending and receiving turns, where to get help

Chapter 2: Headquarters how to use the HQ of the Diploware

Chapter 3: The Map how to understand what you see on the map

Chapter 4: Turn Events the order in which the Diploware orders the game each turn

Chapter 5: Details more in-depth on various aspects of the game

Chapter 6: Battles the gritty details of how battles are won and lost

Chapter 7: Troops combat strength, defence, speed, cost, upkeep Ė itís all here

Chapter 8: Realms a little information on each realm, and where to find them

Chapter 9: Advice what to do when youíre new, and a sheet well worth printing

Chapter 10: FAQ some miscellaneous questions

Victory Conditions

Chapter 1: Introduction

Age of Conquest is a giant board game, with players from all over the world. Each player is the lord of a separate Realm, attempting to dominate the Ancient Period of the Age of Conquest. The game is played as if you were a ruler of this region. You give orders to your captains and other minions, which in the game is done using the Diploware program (which you download from the website). There is a due date for everyoneís orders, in which time all game events occur. Then, everyone is sent the results (and things continue onward in the same manner). This is the rulebook, which you can use as a reference, in conjunction with the help menus of the Diploware. Also, in the rulebook, major orders are written in dark yellow font, to make them more visible. This is to help in finding them if you are skimming for a certain order. For example:

Offer Alliance: This is only for a neutral realm, and is to attempt to form an alliance.

Sometimes you will see a message in green Ė this is advice from Joe Brennan, and may be of some value. J

For royalty rights, go to http://www.agegames.co.uk/donate.html For each game you join, you have to specify to the GM on the turn you wish to go royal (whether at the start of the game or some point into the game.) To check up the status of the game and whether your latest turn is out, check http://www.lords-of-conquest.com/newturns.php You can download your latest turn from here if you wish. The information you need (password, game number, realm number) will be on the email that contains your latest resultfile.


If you are just starting out, you probably have only a vague idea of how things work at this point. Donít worry; you shall soon get the hang of things. You should have the Diploware on your computer, and should be ready to run it. If you donít have the Diploware, you need to download it ASAP (itís completely free) from:


Now that the program is installed on your computer, it is important that you work through the Tutorial. You can come back to this rulebook later.

Opening Your Turn:

First, close any unnecessary programs you have running. This helps to ensure that you donít have too many things running on your computer, and so your Diploware will run efficiently. This is a very important step! After this, start the Diploware, which brings you to the Start-up Menu, where you can select a file to load. When you are playing in a game, you should select either your saved orders, or your newest Results file, which was sent to you by the GM. When you select this and open it, you are brought to your Headquarters (if not, then contact the GM for troubleshooting).

At the Top of the Diploware:

At the top part of the Diploware, you can see:

  1. Headquarters: This is where you manage your diplomatic relations.
  2. Map: This shows you the map, and is where you manage your various forces.
  3. Messages: This shows you various reports and messages about what happened on the last turn.
  4. Game: This allows you to save your orders, or open a new turn.

Messages Menu:

By clicking on the Messages at the top, you can see reports of the last turnís events. You can click between normal Messages, Battle Reports, and Proclamations. You can see the following:

Game Menu:

Even though you are impatient to learn about the map, I will now talk about the Game (or main) menu. Here, you can do the following:

  1. Results file: this is a file sent to you by the GM, which has your latest results. Be careful to use your latest resultfile, not an old one (this file has the extension ".new" and the icon is a package).
  2. Saved Orders: these are your saved orders, which you create with the Save Turn button. This will have your saved orders on it, which you can open and edit as you like. This is also the file you send to the GM.
  3. Upgrade File: This is a special file that you download from the website, then open. This will upgrade your Diploware automatically. This is only if there is some upgrade available, which the GM will let you know about. At the website, there is an upgrade file available, created by fans of the game. This adds all manner of sounds and art to your Diploware, itís really nifty.

Introduction To Turn Events:

Each unit can perform different orders. All game events happen during turn events, and all orders for all realms will be carried out at this time. Such things as units moving, battles and revenues, etc. happen. They occur in a certain order, which is explained in Chapter 4. If you are wondering about a particular game event (such as how units march, how revenues are collected, etc.), then please skim through Chapter 4 and Chapter 5, which detail these activities. Also, please note that game events happen in a certain order. There are 3 main parts to turn events; Initial Events, Movement Events, and Final Events. Each type of activity is explained better in Chapter 4, as well as the exact order in which it will happen during turn events, so be sure to look through that chapter (especially be sure to know about Phases, to help with your planning). For example, declaring war happens before movement, so this means that you can declare war on an enemy, and then move to attack him that same turn. But, troops are built after all movement and battles, so the troops you build wonít be there if an enemy attacks.

Important Notes about Sending In Your Turn:

Turns are due at the same time for all games, and there is one turn per week (unless otherwise indicated for your game).



California, USA

Wednesday, 5:00 PM

New York, USA

Wednesday, 8:00 PM

London, England

Thursday, 1:00 AM

Sydney, Australia

Thursday, 11:00 AM

If you donít send your turn in on time, please donít expect the game to wait for you. Sometimes you

might get lucky Ė if you havenít received your next turnfile, there is a good chance you can still send

your turn in and get it processed, but there is no guarantee. Send your turn in before the deadline if you

want to be sure it will get processed.

Policy about Playing in Multiple Games:

The GM enjoys hosting games, and there are always positions available for new people (current players always have priority for signing up for new games). However, the GM can host only a limited number of games, so to be fair to everyone on the waiting list, we ask that each person plays in only 1 game at the same time (this includes all games hosted by A.G.E. games).
The following exceptions apply:
A) If you have Royalty status in 1 game, then you may join 2 games at the same time.
B) If your position is relatively hopeless, or victory is expected to be declared within the next 3 turns, then you are also welcome to sign up for another game.
C) Once you have played 10 turns in a row without missing a turn, you are considered a Veteran, and are then eligible to be a replacement in a current game. This is if you are already in a game, and you wish to join another as a replacement for a player that cannot continue. In this case, just sign up normally, and indicate that you would like a replacement position.

Note:  Player Status (Royalty or Commoner) is separate for each game.  So, if you join another game, and want to have Royalty status, you need to request this specifically (everyone is Commoner by default).

Final Notes:

  1. Be sure you have followed through with the tutorial. Also, more detailed descriptions of how game events work are in Chapter 4 and Chapter 5.
  2. At the bottom of the rulebook, there will be a Frequently Asked Questions section. This has answers to questions which have been previously asked. There is a good chance your question will have an answer there.
  3. There is a discussion group for the game, and you can sign up at the webpage. Feel free to fire off your questions there, to get a faster response. And, for more experienced players, if you see a question in the group that you have the answer to, please be kind and answer it. JB: Read this rulebook first! Veterans generally donít want to answer questions that are very clearly covered in the rulebook. We experienced players are happy to help clarify things, but if youíre asking something thatís clearly covered in the bookÖ. :-(
  4. As a last resort, if you canít find answers to your questions elsewhere, then you can send them to: gm@agegames.co.uk

But, please be advised that replies to email by the GM are fairly slow, because of the volume of email (although VIP players, known as Royalty, have access to the GMís private email for fast responses).

Bonus Files: There will be a special upgrade available, which will add numerous pictures and sounds to your diploware. However, this upgrade is only recommended if your computer is at least 500 mhz - otherwise, it will slow your diploware down quite a bit. Go to the GM notes section of the website to download this.

Troop Upkeep Costs are an Important Consideration

Chapter 2: Thy Headquarters

Headquarters Overview:

After opening your turn, you are brought to your Headquarters, and you can return here by clicking on Headquarters at the top of the Diploware. You can think of this area as your Throne Room, where your advisors are available to carry out your commands. Performing an order would be similar to summoning your Grand Chamberlain, Chief Diplomat, or other minion to carry out your instructions. Here, you will see:

  1. Treasury: This is the amount of gold currently in your coffers.
  2. Upkeep: This is the total upkeep costs for all troops you own.
  3. HQ Expenses: This is the total gold cost of all Headquarters orders you have planned (such as annexing provinces, etc.).
  4. Garrison Expenses: This is the total gold cost of all current orders received by your Garrisons (such as building troops, etc.)
  5. Expected Surplus or Shortfall: If you are spending less gold than is available in your treasury, you can see the amount of gold that will be unspent. Unspent gold is added to your treasury for the next turn. If you are spending more gold than you have, then there will be a shortfall. In that case, some of your orders will fail during turn events. JB: This is the most important thing you need to pay attention to Ė so long as this value is 0, or better, you know you havenít over-spent. The moment this value goes negative, find out how youíve overspent. Itís very embarrassing when your annexations donít work because you overspent on the knights!
  6. Expected Revenues: This is the amount of revenues you can expect to receive next season. Note that this income wonít be available for you to spend this season.

Please understand that these values are not always exact Ė some values may be rounded to the nearest number. For instance, if you own 4 troops with an upkeep value of 1.1 gold each, for a total of 4.4 gold, the expenses will be reported as only 4 gold. To be on the safe side, you should consider leaving a surplus of two gold in your treasury.

Diplomatic Relations:

Each Realm has Diplomatic Relations with every other Realm in the game, which is shown on the list of Realms at your Headquarters. Your main Diplomatic Relations with each realm will be one of the following:

The orders you can issue to change your diplomatic relations are:

  1. Offer Alliance: This is only for a neutral realm, and is to attempt to form an alliance.
  2. Cancel Alliance: This is only for an ally, and is to remove the alliance between your realms.
  3. Declare War: This is only for neutral realms, and is to declare a state of war to exist between your two realms.
  4. Offer Peace: This is only for an enemy, and is to try to establish peace between your two realms.
  5. Offer Allegiance: If you do this, you could become another playerís Client State. The other player has to offer you Patronage at the same time.
  6. Offer Patronage: If you do this, you could become another playerís Patron. The other player has to offer you allegiance at the same time.

Other Diplomatic Status:

Each Realm also has diplomatic statuses with other Realms, which are:

  1. Accept Gifts: This is to accept gifts from a realm.
  2. Accept Nothing: This is to refuse any gifts from a realm. JB: Why you would choose to accept nothing from another player is beyond me. Keep it on! On the other hand, if youíre attacked by two players, you could try to give one land gifts, and then tell the other enemy youíve payed the first one off with land. Iíve seen it workÖ..once. Split their alliance up and they bickered and fought. I survived. J Very Macchiavellian. Maybe you should turn off gifts from your enemiesÖ.
  1. Grant Passage Rights: This is for any realm that is not an enemy and that has not already been granted Passage Rights. This is to allow another Realm to move through your lands.
  2. Revoke Passage Rights: This is for any realm that you have previously granted Passage Rights to. This is to revoke Passage Rights from a realm.
  1. Give Province: This is for all realms, and is to give a province you own to another Realm.
  2. Send Ambassador: This is for all realms. This is to send your email address to another player, in the expectation that he will read your message, and then send you a private email, thus initiating diplomatic discussions.
  3. Send Gold: This is for all realms, and is to send a gift of gold to that Realm. You must own a garrison within 7 locations of the recipient for this to succeed, or the gold wonít be sent.
  4. Others: The functions of the other buttons (Share Recon, Espionage, Intel Report and Regions) are explained elsewhere.

HQ Plans:

As mentioned before, at the top of the Diploware, you can see all of your planned Headquarters orders. This has:

Granting Full Passage Rights allows Cooperation, but can expose

You to Duplicity. Limited Permission May Be a Better Option.

Chapter 3: The Map

Map Overview:

At last, we come to the map. To get here, click on the Map at the top of the Diploware. You can see a giant game board, with provinces and seas marked by black borders, as well as the troops in each location. You can scroll up and down to see a greater area of the map. You can think of it as if your realmís advisors have built a model replica of the known lands. Major locations and scouting reports of troops have been plotted here with miniatures as well, and all of this represents your view of the actual political situation of Kharne. It is up to you to write planned orders for your followers; to expand and protect your realm. Here, you will see the following:


A sea represents a large expanse of water in the game, with the name written in blue. Seas are not owned by any Realm, and do not yield revenue. You can move your fleets through seas, which can transport armies and engage in naval battles.


A province is a large tract of land in the game. Some important notes about provinces are:

Map Barriers:

Your forces can move between different locations that are adjacent to each other. However, there are various barriers to movement between locations. Some borders are blocked by natural features such as swamps, dense forest, mountains, etc., which are virtually impassable for an army, with its supply wagons and so forth. Barriers to movement between provinces are shown with mountains (although the barrier is not necessarily mountainous terrain). Armies cannot march between such provinces. Some coastlines are blocked by cliffs, unfavourable currents, dangerous shoals, etc. Barriers to movement between a sea and a province are shown with reefs (although the barrier is not necessarily reefs). Fleets cannot load or unload armies across such provinces, and fleets cannot anchor at such a province. Note that in ancient times, fleets would stay within sight of a coastline at all times, as means of navigation were not well developed, and a fleet would need to seek shelter in times of stormy weather, to avoid disaster at sea. Thus, on the map you will see barriers between large sea zones, as sailing across such large expanses of open seas was impractical and dangerous during this era.


There are numerous Regions in the game. A Region is an extensive region, with language and cultural ties that unite the area. Each Region has an available title that can be claimed by players (only Royalty have the standing to do this of course). Gaining the title to these lands will yield valuable revenues, as greater taxes can be wrung from the nobility and merchants of the domain. For example, several provinces make up the Earldom of Wessex, and a player owning all these provinces will gain the title Earl of Wessex, and a valuable additional income in gold each season (delivered to the treasury of your realm). Also, the Kingdom of England is a Region, made up of several smaller Regions (including the Earldom of Wessex), which yields far greater revenue each season. Some important notes about Regions are:


Each province and sea may have troops stationed there. Ships can be anchored in a province, or can be sailing in a sea. Soldiers can be located in a province, or aboard ships in a sea. On the map, the troops (soldiers and ships) are shown in the following manner:

For example, if you see a miniature of an infantry, with a blue base, and the number 8, that means you own 8 troops there, and the most valuable type is infantry. If you see a miniature of cavalry, with a red base, and the number 3, then you know that there are 3 troops owned by foreign realms (it could be more than 1 realm), and the most valuable type is cavalry (there could be infantry there as well).

JB: To get more information, click on the Troop Miniature. A box will open, explaining what troops are there, and which country owns them. Independent troops hold many provinces at the start of the game, and it is typical strategy for many players to start the game by attacking neighbouring independent provinces.

Map Options:

On the bottom-right of the map, there is a button with a hammer and wrench. This changes the map display. You can do the following:

Location Report:

To get more detailed information about a location, click on some part of it on the map. This brings up the Location Report. This shows you:

Province Report Orders:

When you open the Location Report for a province, orders may be available. The order buttons are on the right-hand side. These are all Headquartersí Orders, and can be seen on the HQ Plans menu (these activities are not done by units). The orders available are:

Unit List:

Under the map, there is a list of units that you own. You can see the following for each unit:

Major Unit Orders:

From the map menu, you can issue a number of orders to your units. First, select a unit (on the unit list) by left-clicking your mouse on the unit. The available orders for that unit will then be shown to the right of the unit list. When you select a unit, you can see its location on the map, as the troop base will be outlined in white. Also, any movement orders for that unit are shown with blue and red arrows (a blue arrow means you are moving through a location, a red arrow means the location is your last destination). You can also double-click on the selected unit, and the map will centre on it. Once you have selected a unit, you can perform different orders. The major unit orders available are listed on the right-hand side of the Unit List. You select an order, and then you receive a menu where you determine the specifics of the order. Each type of unit has different orders available. The orders are:

Unit Plan:

As you know, you can give your units various orders. The orders given to a unit are saved onto the Unit Plan for that unit. Each unit has a separate Unit Plan. To see the unit plan, right click on any unit on the unit list, or select a unit and press the View Orders button. The Unit Plan shows various information about the unit. In the middle part, you can see:

Managing Commanders:

At the top left of the Unit Plan, you can select to show the troops or commanders in the unit. If commanders are selected, then any commanders in the unit will be shown, and you can perform orders for them, which are:

Managing Troops:

At the top left of the Unit Plan, you can see the troops in the unit. At the top, you can select to show commanders or troops. If troops are selected, then you can perform orders for them, which are:

Administrative Unit Orders:

On the left side of the Unit Plan, there are different admin orders for units. Each type of unit (Army, Fleet, Garrison) has different orders available, and the units that can perform each order are listed. All of these orders are done from the Unit Plan. None of these orders cost Move-points to perform. In addition, for garrisons, you can examine fortifications in the province. The orders that can be performed here are:

JB: This is useful if you have an army of infantry assigned to low ranks and an army of cavalry set to high ranks. You can put some infantry in the second rank, and tell them to retreat when the first rank is destroyed. You can order the cavalry to follow a unit in the second rank of infantry. That way your cavalry will retreat when your infantry decides to do so. If this seems tricky, perhaps you should have combined both armies together before attacking. J Beware of the danger involved if the unit you are following is killed in battle. Without that good manís leadership to tell the lads to retreat, all your other soldiers will die in the field beside him.

JB: You should always click this option on if there is any chance of your navy taking hits. The last thing you want is to have your non-fighting armies drowning because they wouldnít help out the sailors in a battle.

Advanced Map Techniques:

There are some map options available that make viewing the map easier:

Determine Units Shown on the Unit List: You can change the unit list so that only some types of units are shown. Click on Map Options, and you can see 3 buttons: Armies, Fleets, and Garrisons. Clicking these buttons will change the units shown on the unit list. For example, click on Armies, making the button unlicked. Now, go to the map, and Armies are not shown on the unit list. Go back and select armies again, and they will now be shown on the unit list.


Strong City Defences doth increase troop combat strength.

Chapter 4: Turn Events

Everyone prepares their orders separately, and then sends them to the GM to be processed. Everyoneís orders will be carried out at the same time. If you don't send in orders, then your Realm wonít do anything except pay upkeep and collect revenues (your forces will still defend your lands). But, other Realms will still carry out their orders. All the game events happen in a certain order, which is shown here. Pay special attention to the order in which events are listed. This is the exact order that they occur when turns are processed. Also, please see the Details section - these concepts are important for understanding this chapter.

Introduction to Turn Events:

Everyoneís turn is processed together at the same time. There are "First Events", then "Movement Events", and then finally "Last Events". The First Events are things like declaring war, etc., which all happen before the Movement Events. The Last Events are things like gaining revenue, etc., that all happen after Movement Events. Pay close attention to the order of events in the Turn Events section. This is how you will know when each of your orders will happen when turns are processed. For example, changing Acceptance happens in First Events, so this will happen before any movement. Also, ownership change happens during Movement Events, so this is only after all First Events are done (Ownership change happens in phases, so the ownership of a province can change more than one time during the turn). Gold revenues happen in Last Events, so this happens only after all movement and battles (in the Phases of Movement Events) are complete.


Movement Events happen in a number of "Phases". A Phase is about 1 month of time (a Phase could also be called an "impulse" if you are more familiar with that term in wargaming). Each phase, various events will occur, and they repeat a number of times until no units have any Move-points. For example, on Phase 1, all units move 1 location, and then battles happen, province ownership changes, etc. Then, there is a Phase 2, and all units move 1 location, then battles happen, province ownership changes, etc. These Phases continue until no units have any Move-points left. When there are no more units that can move, then there is 1 more extra Phase, and then Movement Events are complete. When that happens, the Last Events happen. For transferring, units will transfer only if they are in the same location at the same phase. If units never arrive at the same place at the same phase, then no transfer will happen! Also, remember phases for coordinating unit movement. For example, you give Army#1 orders to invade enemy Province A, and you give Army#2 orders to move to friendly Province B, and then invade Province A. These armies wonít arrive at the same time! This is what will happen: Army#1 will invade during Phase 1, while meanwhile, Army#2 will move to Province A during Phase 1. Army#2 will invade during Phase 2 (although if Army#1 succeeds, you will own the province by the time Army#2 gets there). A better plan would be to give Army#1 orders to Wait and then invade, while Army#2 has orders to move and then invade. This way, on Phase#1, Army#1 will wait (remain in place) while Army#2 moves to Province A. Then, on Phase#2, both units will attack together.

Here is the list of all events that occur in each round, in order. Note that the movement events repeat until all possible ordered movements are completed. Each event is explained in the rest of the chapter, in order.


First Events:

This is the first part of Turn Events. These steps are:

War Declared:

This happens first. This changes the diplomatic relations between Realms from Neutral to War. This is done by Declaring War. Only 1 Realm has to do this, and then war will be declared. However, you canít declare war with a Realm that is your Ally. In this case, you canít declare war this same turn. For an ally, you will need to cancel your alliance. It will take one turn to break the first relations, and then you can declare war the next turn. When war is declared, then all Passage Rights and Special Permission will be immediately cancelled between the two realms, and cannot be established while the two realms are enemies.

Ctrl+click here for more on Invasions.

Acceptance Changed:

This step is to change the Acceptance between all Realms. You do this with the Change Acceptance action. This indicates whether you will accept gifts from another Realm (including provinces, transfers and gold sent). If you donít want their gifts (for whatever reason), then change your Acceptance to No. This happens at this time. A realm could give you a province it is about to lose to try and embroil you in a conflict you want nothing to do with.

Passage Rights Changed:

This step is to change Passage Rights between all realms. This is not the only way to give permission for a realm to move through your territories. You do this with the Grant Passage Rights or Revoke Passage Rights actions. You can grant or revoke Passage Rights to another realm (but not an enemy realm). If you grant Passage Rights to a realm, then they can move through all of your lands at will. This is potentially hazardous, for should they decide to attack you, they could send out small units through your lands. Next turn, they could declare war, causing all manner of havoc. For a trusted ally, this is useful, as he will be able to retreat into your lands, etc.

Special Permission Changed:

This is to change the Special Permission for any provinces you own. For each province, you can indicate which realms will be granted permission to move through it. You do this with the Grant Special Permission, Revoke Special Permission actions. This is to give a realm permission to move through a single province, which is safer than granting full Passage Rights.

Ctrl+click here for more on Permission.

New Armies Formed:

This step is to form all new armies. This can only be done by armies and garrisons. For all new armies being formed, they are created now. Each Realm can have only 99 armies. Armies formed can have troops and commanders transferred into them, and can be given orders the same turn they are created.

New Fleets Formed:

This step is to form new fleets. This can only be done by fleets and garrisons. For all new fleets being formed, they are created now. Each Realm can have only 99 fleets (these are completely separate from armies). Fleets formed can have troops and commanders transferred into them, and can be given orders the same turn they are created.

Various Administrative Actions Performed:

At this time, a number of administrative orders are performed, which are:

Same Location Transfers Occur:

This step is to transfer troops and commanders between units. These are transfers that will happen because the recipient and giving unit are in the same location. These transfers will always succeed, and will happen at this time (prior to any movement happening). Transfers also happen during Movement Events.

Ctrl+click here for more on transfers.

Troops Reassigned To Ranks:

The next step is reassign troops to different ranks. Each unit has 5 ranks, and each troop in a unit is in one of these ranks. Remember, ALL troops cause damage against the enemy, no matter what rank they are in (Ranks and Retreat Level are explained in Chapter 5). Troops in lower numbered ranks are taken first as casualties in battle Ė as a general rule, put your worst troops up front. JB: I like to put heavy infantry up front, because they often survive a small fight without any casualties. When Iím besieged, I also put them up front, because two cheaper units, each getting the benefit of city defences, will make a bigger impact on my enemies. You can reorganize a type of troop by placing all of the individual troops into different ranks. All of the troops will now be placed into their new ranks. You should check your units to make sure the troops are assigned as you wish. Whenever you transfer troops into one of your armies, you should re-assign the new troops to ranks, and whenever you build new troops you should reassign them also Ė unless they are about to be put into another army (in that case, you reassign them once theyíve been transferred). Keep in mind that troops are reassigned in First Events (not during movement). You can put as many (or as few) of your troops in each rank. You can leave ranks empty. JB: If you have a small force, and want them to attempt a risky move to a currently empty enemy territory, you might like to put one troop in the first rank, and set the retreat level to rank one. If enemies turn up, youíll take casualties from the first round of combat, but the rest of your troops will flee like the cowardly scum they are. Itís better than having them all die, isnít it???

Disbanding/Salvaging Troops:

This step is to get rid of troops that you do not want. If you donít want to pay upkeep for commanders or troops, then you can disband or salvage them. Disbanding soldiers or scuttling ships will remove the troop, so you wonít have to pay upkeep that same turn. Salvaging is the same thing, except that you may gain gold from doing this. Salvaging represents taking equipment, horses, etc. from the disbanded troops. To gain salvaged gold from ships, the unit must be in a province (not a sea).

Movement Events:

Okay, now that all of the first events are complete, the main part of the turn activities happen. These are called Movement Events. These steps are performed one at a time. After the last step, if there are any more armies or fleets that have orders to perform, then all of the steps in Movement Events will repeat in the same manner. Each time Movement Events happen, this is called a Phase (this is explained better previously in this chapter). This continues in a number of Phases (each phase, movement events happen). After all units have performed all their actions, there will be 1 extra phase, and then Movement Events are complete. For example, an army has orders to March to province A, then March to province B. In the first Phase, all of the steps in Movement Events happen, and occur, and so during Phase 1, the army will march to province A. On Phase 2, the army will move to province B. If more units have actions to perform, then there will be additional Phases. There may be a Phase 3, Phase 4, etc. The steps of Movement Events are:

Transfers Happen:

This step is for all transfers to happen. Transfers will happen exactly like they did in First Events, with the same requirements. Each unit will check to see if it has any transfers to perform, and if the recipient is in the same location. If the recipient is there, then the transfer will happen. If the recipient is elsewhere, then the unit wonít transfer (transferring is explained better in Chapter 5). JB: A simple rule of thumb is: troops can only transfer if theyíre in the same place at the same time.

Ctrl+click here for more on transfers.

Armies Prepare To Board Foreign Fleets:

This step is for each army to prepare the Board Fleet action. You donít do this if your own fleet will load your army, this is only for a foreign fleet that will do so. A foreign fleet can only load your army if your army performs this action! This will not cause an army to be loaded at this time, but will prepare the army to be loaded later. This action is only needed for boarding a fleet owned by a different realm. This action indicates which realm will be allowed to load the army. Without this action, your army will refuse to board any foreign fleet. When an army will board a fleet, it cannot move that turn (loading/unloading armies is explained better in the Details section).

Your army can be a marine on your allyís fleet. So long as you have checked the box on your armyís description box so that it says "Board Enemy Ships in Sea Battles" then your soldiers will act on your allyís ships as marines just as they would work on your own ships.

If your ally chooses to break faith with you, and your soldiers are on his ships, then there will be a battle between your soldiers (and any of your accompanying ships) and his ships (and any of his accompanying soldiers). Generally you would expect the ships to win such an encounter. But if the soldiers win, they could capture some of the ships, and thereby save themselves from drowning.

If you wish to load an army onto your own fleet, this is an action undertaken by your fleet, not your army. You order your fleet to load an army. You donít need to order the army at all Ė unless you want your army to board a foreign fleet.

Fleets Load Armies:

This step is for all armies to be loaded aboard fleets (remember, harbours are not needed for loading/unloading armies). In order for an army to be loaded onto a fleet, these conditions must be met:

When an army is loaded, that army will not be able to move any further during the turn (it will have 0 Move-points). The fleet can still move.

Note: A Royal Carrack has Marine Capacity for 4, and Storage for 4. This does not mean you could put two infantrymen on as marines and another two as passengers. You will only get two infantry units on the Royal Carrack, and you can set them to marine duties. A Timber Raft can carry the same amount, but cannot use the troops as marines in battle, since its Marine Capacity is 0.

Ctrl+click here for more on Fleet Loading and Unloading.

Fleets Set Sail:

This step is for each fleet to sail 1 location. A fleet can sail between seas and provinces (for a province, this is to sail to the coast and dock ships there). A fleet can only sail to 1 location per phase - a fleet can sail to additional locations in other Phases. (It is important to understand Movement, Move-points and Permission, which are explained in the Details section). For sailing, there are the following conditions:

Ctrl+click here for more on Move-points.

Homeless Fleets Depart:

A Homeless Fleet is any fleet located in a province, but there is nowhere for the fleet to anchor. This will happen if there is no harbour, or if the province is owned (or conquered) by an enemy. A harbour can be destroyed, and in each case, all fleets there will be Homeless Fleets. Such fleets will flee to any connected sea (a random sea will be chosen). If a fleet flees in this way, it will do so in the next phase (not the current one) and will use up all Move-points, and will not be able to follow any sail orders. If for some reason there is no connected sea, then all ships in the fleet will be scuttled, and a new army will be created to contain all commanders that were in the fleet.

Sea Battles Are Fought:

This step is for Sea-battles to be fought. This is a battle between enemy fleets and marines that are in a sea. Fleets are never engaged in battles on land. Sea battles occur according to the Sea-battle System (this is explained in Chapter 6). Enemy ships will be involved in the combat, as well as marines, which are soldiers in armies loaded aboard the fleets fighting. Whether troops fight as marines depends on the Marines Option of an army, and also the available Marine Capacity of a fleet (this is explained in Chapter 5). Enemy fleets in the same sea will always engage each other in battle. If 2 enemy forces are crossing the same sea border, Sea battles happen with normal cross-border battles.  So if you are moving from A to B, and he is moving from B to A, a normal cross-border battle will happen.  If a fleet retreats from a battle, this will use up all of the fleetís Move-points and the fleet wonít perform any other actions that turn (including transfers, etc.) The victors of a sea-battle may capture ships lost by enemy fleets. All Sea Battles will be resolved at this time, one by one, until there are no more enemy fleets in the same location. Note that a fleet could retreat from 1 battle, only to find itself in another sea, and have to fight another battle. If a fleet is destroyed in battle, any commanders in the fleet will be transferred to other available fleets (if none are available, the commanders will be lost at sea).

Sea battles have no move cost for units involved (fleets or armies).

Ctrl+click here for more on Sea Battles.

Fleet Storage Checked:

This step is to check all fleets to make sure there is enough Storage available to contain the total weight of all armies loaded aboard. All fleets are checked in this way. A fleet may have insufficient storage if ships are transferred out, discarded, or lost in battle. If a fleet has more weight loaded aboard than storage, then troops will have to abandon ship. If possible, these will be transferred to other fleets you own. If this is not possible, then troops will have to be abandoned at sea. Troops that are heavier and have less value have a tendency to be thrown overboard first, but you will have no control over what you will lose. So, try to make sure you have enough storage to carry your valuable cargos!

Ctrl+click here for more on Storage and Weight.

All Armies Unloaded Onto Provinces:

This step is for all fleets to perform the Unload Army action. Each fleet can have numerous armies loaded onto it. These armies can be unloaded onto a province (remember, harbours are not needed for loading or unloading armies). When an army is unloaded, it will be placed onto the target province. If this action is performed successfully, then the fleetís and armyís Move-points will be all used up, and neither unit will be able to move any further for the turn. The conditions for unloading armies are:

There is a negative combat modifier for your troops if they unload on a province where there are enemy troops. The modifier will only take effect during the first combat Ė if you win the first battle, and more enemy troops arrive in a later phase of the same turn, there will be no negative modifier. If you bring in more troops next week, and your enemy attacks at the same time, your troops will not have a negative modifier either, as the province is now owned by you and it is therefore not an amphibious assault.

Note Ė if there is an empty enemy province you wish to invade, and your enemy marches troops there in the first movement phase, they will meet simultaneously. The enemy will still own the province, so your invasion force will get the negative modifier for an amphibious assault.

Ctrl+click here for more on Amphibious Invasions.

Armies March:

This step is for each army to march 1 province for the current Phase. This will only happen if the army meets all conditions for movement (Marching is explained better in Chapter 5). Each army will only march to 1 province at this time (an army can march to additional provinces in other Phases, but an army can only move 1 location per phase). After an army marches, then the Move-point cost is taken from the armyís Move-points. For marching to succeed, there are the following conditions:

Crtl+click here for more on Movement and Movepoints.

Ctrl+click here for examples of Movement.

Ctrl+click here for more on Invasions.

Ctrl+click here for more on Coordinating Movement.

Defend Fortifications Option Changed:

This is for all armies to change their Defend Fortification option, as they prepare for any battles. This option indicates if an army will enter and defend a fortification if there is a battle in the province. If an army does this, the army will gain a defensive bonus from any fortification. But, if there is a fortification, the army will not be able to retreat from the battle. If the unit is set to not defend fortifications, then it can retreat normally. If there is no fortification, then this option has no effect (the unit will be able to retreat then).

Ctrl+click here for more on Fortifications.

Cross-border Battles Are Fought:

Now, all Cross-border battles happen. This is a battle that happens when 2 or more enemy armies attempt to move into each otherís locations on the same border. This is related to armies marching, and only the units actually moving are involved (garrisons will never be involved in cross-border battles, and neither will fortifications). For example, Province A connects to Province B. Army#1 moves from A to B. An enemy army moves from B to A (this is all happening in the same Phase). These 2 enemy units are moving to each otherís location, so this will cause a cross-border battle to happen, at the border of Provinces A and B. If another army was moving from C to A, that army would not be involved in this battle (only units moving from A to B or from B to A will be involved). You can consider the border a completely separate province for the purposes of this battle, and any unit not on the border will not be involved. So, no fortifications will be involved, and neither will units located in the provinces, or units that were unloaded into the provinces. Cross-border battles are resolved similarly to normal province battles. However, if a unit retreats, it will go back to where it was before it attempted to move. So, in the above example, if Army#1 retreated, it would just move back to Province A. This may cause another battle to happen in the next step (province battles).

Cross-border battles do not affect the immediate movement of the winning army Ė that force will continue to move to their ordered destination, and may fight another battle when they get there. As for the loser, his army will not be able to successfully complete its ordered move.

Ctrl+click here for more on Battles.

Land Battles Are Fought:

This step is to check for all Land Battles to happen. A land battle is a bloody combat between enemy armies (and any garrison, if there is one) in the same province. In the previous steps, all armies have marched 1 location and fought any cross-border battles. Now, land battles will happen in all provinces where there are enemy units. Battles will be fought according to the method explained in Chapter 6. Some important notes about land battles are:

  1. Fleets and ships are never involved in land battles.
  2. Armies that are not at war will never fight each other. So, if your ally attacks a unit, but you are not at war with that unit, then you will simply watch, and wonít be involved.
  3. Independent armies will always consider an intruder an enemy, and will always engage in battles against those who cross their borders. The exception is if you have Special Permission to move into an independent territory, in which case you will be ignored when your forces enter the province.
  4. At the end of each round of battle, each army involved may retreat. If an army retreats, then it flees into another province. This will be the province that the army moved from, unless this province has enemy soldiers in it. In this case, the army will retreat to any available province that it can move to. If there are no available provinces to retreat to, then the unit will not retreat, and will instead remain in the battle. When a unit retreats, all Move-points will be used up.
  5. Units in cross-border battles will still arrive at normal land battles. They will arrive at the same time as other units that were not in a cross-border battle. Units that retreat from a cross-border battle will return to the province from where they started movement. These units will be involved in any battle in the province they started from (unless they were destroyed in the cross-border battle).
  6. You donít have to destroy the fortifications of a city to conquer the province. You just need to kill off any troops defending it. If there arenít any, then you conquer the city without damaging it Ė the city throws open its gates to you! But if there are defenders, it might be very beneficial for you to damage or destroy the defences first.
  7. If two attackers in an independent province are hostile towards each other, the battle will be a 3-way battle; each side will attack all the others. His troops may attack you or the other invader. The one he attacks is random, same with everyone else's forces. For example, you have 10 troops, the other invader has 15, then for each unit owned by the independent, there is a 10/25 chance the independent will attack one of your troops, 15/25 chance of attacking the other invader. The same thing for which troops you will attack, etc.

Battle only uses move points if fought on enemy territory.  Therefore, there is no move cost for a cross-border battle, or a battle that occurs on friendly or neutral territory.

Ctrl+click for more on Battles.

Province Ownership Changes:

This step is for the ownership of provinces to change. If a province is invaded, and all friendly armies are destroyed or have retreated, then the invaders will now own the province. If a province is invaded by more than one Realm, then the Realm with the greatest number of troops/commanders in the province at this time must have a total combat of at least 10 (which means a lone siege machine cannot conquer a province). If ownership changes, the following happens:

If two or more countries have troops in a province, and the province is to change hands, then it will belong to the country which has the largest total of troops in the province. Eg Denmark and Norway are allies; both move to Flanders, and conquer it. Denmark has eight heavy cavalry, Norway has nine men-at-arms. Norway will get ownership, simply because nine is more than eight. The quality of the troops is irrelevant in determining ownership Ė quantity rules!

If your province is conquered by another player, and that player doesnít annex the province, you have only three turns to re-conquer it, before your annexation is automatically cancelled. If the province is ceded to another player, however, the process of losing your annexation gets delayed to 3 turns after the ceding of the province..

Provinces are Pillaged:

This step is to perform all Pillage orders for all armies and garrisons (fleets canít Pillage). The ownership/annexation of a province does not matter for Pillaging. To Pillage is to seize gold from a province, which can cause devastation to that province (increasing the damage level). The conditions are:

If all conditions are met, then the province will be pillaged. This results in:

Movement Events Repeat:

This step is to check to see if the Movement Events should be repeated. If any unit has Move-points, or can perform valid actions, then Movement Events will repeat. In this case, there will be another Phase (so if the previous Phase was 3, then there will be a Phase 4). After all units have performed all their actions, there will then be 1 extra Phase, and then Movement Events are complete, and then Final Events will happen.

Final Events:

After all the Movement Events are complete, then there are the Final Events. These happen now.

Province Damage Increases:

This step is to check to see if the Damage of any province is increased. Damage will occur if:

If any of the above events happened, then province damage will be increased +1, to a maximum of 3. The damage can only be increased +1 each turn (if multiple events happened, province damage is still only increased +1).

Gold Sent:

This step is to perform all Send Gold actions, where you send gold to another realm. There is a cost of 10% of the amount sent, which represent transportation expenses and merchant fees. The recipient garrison can be owned by a foreign realm, or the same realm. To send gold, the conditions are:

Upkeep Paid:

This step is to pay the upkeep costs for your commanders, soldiers and ships. Commanders gain upkeep first. Gold used for upkeep will be lost. For troops that do not receive upkeep, you donít necessarily lose half your troops, but each troop not receiving full upkeep has a 50% chance of being lost.  So, you could lose half, or less than half, based on the chance of each troop.

Troops Built:

This is for all soldiers recruited and all ships built to be placed onto their garrisons. If there are not enough funds to build a type of troop, then the number to be built will be reduced to what you can afford. If the province you were building in is conquered by another nation, you will not be able to build there. If your province is attacked, but you successfully defend it, then you will be able to build troops there.

Remember that your HQ is not always precise in determining exactly how much surplus gold you have. If you have a surplus of two gold when you send your turn on, you can be confident that all of your purchases will succeed.

Ctrl+click for more on Building Troops.

Commanders Hired:

This step is for garrisons to hire commanders (only garrisons can do this). The conditions for this action are:

If the garrison meets all conditions, then a new commander will be hired. This individual will have ratings in different skills, some commanders have higher ratings than others (you may get a highly skilled individual, or you may get an amateur). Commanders will improve their skills from successful battles.

Ctrl+click here for more on Commanders.

Provinces Annexed:

This step is for garrisons and armies to Annex Province. Annexing means to assimilate it into your realm, and creating an infrastructure there with officials, governor and tax collectors, so that you can extract revenue from the local inhabitants. Annexation cost is equal to the maximum revenue of the province, as shown on the map screen. JB: There is a significant change from older games Ė you no longer have to pay double to annex a province with a city. You pay the annexation cost now, but you wonít receive any revenue from the province this turn (you will get revenue next turn). If you lose ownership of a province, it will remain annexed to you for a few turns more, and then the taxation infrastructure will be lost, so it will be annexed to no one. So, if you lose a province, and then recapture it soon, then you wonít have to annex it again. To annex a province, you must own it now, and also you must have owned it at the beginning of the season. You do need troops to conquer a province, but they donít have to stay there while you annex Ė the province could be empty of troops, and you could still annex it. Also, you donít need to keep troops in an annexed land Ė you can leave it empty, and it will stay yours forever. JB: Unless an enemy army moves in and takes it from you, which you have to expect if you donít guard your borders.

Remember that your HQ is not always precise in determining exactly how much surplus gold you have. If you have a surplus of two gold when you send your turn on, you can be confident that all of your purchases will succeed.

Province Annexation Declines:

When a province changes ownership, it will remain annexed to the realm that it was previously annexed to. However, if the ownership of a province is different than the annexation, then the province will not yield revenue. In addition, if this continues for 3 turns, then the province will become annexed to independents. This represents the decline and wasting away of the officials and infrastructure previously organized there. So, if you lose an annexed province, try to recapture it in a few turns, because after 3 turns it will no longer be annexed to you (if you recaptured it after a long period, you would have to annex it again).

Construction Happens:

This step is for all structures to be built or repaired. These activities include building/upgrading/repairing fortifications, as well as building harbours. The conditions for construction are:

For a unit that meets all conditions, the unit will now perform construction.

A province could have itís fortification level go up twice in one turn, but only if it has damaged fortifications that are left in peace for the turn, and you decide to build another level of fortification at the same time. Eg Your Fort is level 2, but it has suffered a little damage and is currently on Level One. The damage will repair automatically because the province is not attacked that turn, and because youíve ordered 3 soldiers to build there that turn, it will be on Level Three at the start of the next turn.

Ctrl+click here for more on fortifications.

Gold Decay:

This step is for any gold left in your treasury to decay. At this time, 7% of the gold in your treasury will now decay, which represents pilfering, and frivolous expenses by your ruler as he lives the high life.

Structures Razed:

This step is to raze a structure in a province; a harbour or fortification level. Only armies and garrisons can do this. Gold can be salvaged from razing, which is indicated for each structure. The conditions for razing are:

If a unit meets all conditions, then the structure will be razed. Any materials gained will be placed into the storage of the unit (these wonít decay, because of course decay happened previously).

Regions Claimed:

This step is to update the ownership of all Regions. Each Region can have only 1 realm as the owner. In order for a realm to own a Region, the realm must meet all requirements:

At this time, the ownership of all Regions are updated. A realm that has meets all requirements to a Region will now be the new owner, and will gain revenue this turn. A realm that no longer has claim to a Region will continue to be the owner as long as the realm owns at least 1 province in the Region. However, if you do not own all provinces in the Region, you wonít gain the revenue (you will get the commander bonus though).

Region Revenue Gained:

This step is to produce the revenue from each Region. If you have title to a Region, then you can gain additional revenues, as the lesser nobility and merchant class yield additional taxes and tribute. To gain this revenue, you must meet all requirements to claim the Region (as described in the previous step). If you have a Patron, you will pay him 10% of the revenue you gain from your province income and your own Region income.

Province Revenue Gained:

This step is for all provinces to yield revenue to your main treasury. Province income is explained better in Chapter 5. The conditions for producing revenue are:

At this time, all provinces will deliver their revenues (which the inhabitants have worked hard all season long to produce).

Ctrl+click here for more on Province Revenue.

Provinces Gifted:

This step is to transfer the ownership of provinces between Realms. On the Diploware, you can give another realm a province you own. In order for this to happen, the following conditions must be met:

When ownership is changed, this wonít change the annexation of the province, and will also not affect any fortifications or harbour in the province (which will become owned by the recipient realm). Any garrison owned by the old owner will have all troops transferred into new units. So, you canít use this to give away troops to another realm.

Proclamations Income:

This step is for the revenue to be gained from any Proclamation that you made. When you make a proclamation, this will increase your prestige, resulting in extra production by your followers. Accordingly, you will earn 7 gold, which is placed into your treasury. In order to gain the revenue, the proclamation must be suitable, as explained in Chapter 5. Your population does not want to hear vulgarities, which may invoke divine wrath in this superstitious age - and some superstitions are real, for the GM is reading...

Province Damage Repaired:

This step is to repair the damage level of provinces. Damage represents destruction that occurs to crops, population centres, bridges, etc. that reduces the revenue you can gain from a province. Each province has damage from none (undamaged) to 3 (heavily devastated). The damage level is increased at the beginning of Final Events (this happens from pillaging, battles, etc.) Damage is only repaired 1 level per turn. For damage to be repaired:

For provinces that meet these conditions, damage will be repaired 1 level at this time (this happens automatically). This step happens after revenues are gained of course, so revenues will be based on the damage level before damage is repaired.

Peace Established:

This step is to establish peace treaties between Realms. If 2 Realms are at war, they can attempt to establish a peace treaty. This will only succeed if both Realms offered peace to each other. If this happens, then they will now be neutral. Otherwise, they will remain enemies.

Alliances Cancelled:

This step is to cancel alliances. If 2 Realms have an alliance, then either Realm can cancel it. Only 1 Realm needs to do this, and then the alliance will be cancelled. If this happens, then they will now be neutral.

Alliances Formed:

This step is to form an alliance with another Realm. If 2 Realms are neutral, then they can establish an alliance. Both Realms will need to offer each other an alliance. If this happens, then an alliance will be formed between them. Otherwise, nothing will happen. You canít offer an alliance if you're at war. So, you canít move from enemies to allies in the same turn, because that would take 2 turns (the first is to gain peace, and then next is to form the alliance).

Client States Revolt From Their Patrons:

This is for any Client State to revolt from his Patron. A Client State may do this if he is unhappy with the arrangement for whatever reason. It only takes 1 to be revolting. When a Client State revolts:

Patrons Dismiss Client States:

This step is for any Patron to dismiss a Client State from his service, should such a Client State prove to be undesirable. In this case, the Client State will now have no Patron. Relations will become Neutral between the 2 realms. No other diplomatic statuses or other factors will be affected.

Feudal Relations Established:

This step is to form all Patron/Client State relations. In order for this to happen, 1 realm must offer Patronship to a realm, and that realm must Offer Allegiance to the other realm. Both realms need to do this the same turn, or nothing will happen. The conditions are:

Realm Limits Checked:

Each ruler has limited prestige. A rulerís personal prestige is vital to retaining followers and maintaining authority over the populace. Commoner status represents an undistinguished individual, of unremarkable qualities and bloodline, who is less able to gather a large following in his pursuit of empire. Royalty status represents a battle-tested ruler of royal bloodline, with great charisma, leadership, and other traits that mark a distinguished warlord. One gains this eminent status by simply contributing his GM fee, which is a modest donation that helps the GM with running the game. A ruler with Royalty status can control a larger realm and retain the loyalty of a greater number of followers than a ruler that is a Commoner. The limits are the following:

Ctrl+click here for more on Player Status (Royalty / Commoner).

Defeated Realms Removed:

This is the last step. If there is a Realm that does not own any provinces or troops, then it is defeated. A Realm needs to have at least 1 province or 1 troop, or it will be removed from the game. In this case, all remaining forces revert to independent status.

Ctrl+click here to go to information on Achieving Victory.

Turn Events Are Complete:

Troops can only be recruited in a Garrison with a City.

Chapter 5: Details of How Things Work

Here are a number of concepts that are useful to know about, as well as details about how things work.


This represents currency, precious metals, jewels and other portable items of wealth. You can send gold to another realm for diplomatic purposes. Gold is a common item used for recruiting troops, paying upkeep, etc. You gain gold by owning annexed provinces, or pillaging a province (you donít need to own it to do that). You can also gain gold from making a proclamation.


For construction activities (like building a fortification) you need gold and workers. A worker is a soldier. So, if a structure needed 3 workers to build, your unit would need to have at least 3 soldiers to build it.

Total Combat:

You can see the total combat of a unit on the Location Report or Unit Plan (click on the status button). You can also see the total combat on the location report. This is the total Combat of all troops and commanders in a unit, added together. Each soldier and ship has a combat rating. Most troops have 2 attacks (the Attack is the number of times it can cause damage each round of battle), but the number of Attacks for a unit can vary from 1 to 8, depending on its type. The total combat of a troop is the attacks it has multiplied by the combat value. The total combat of a unit is the total combat of all troops. For example, a soldier with 2 attacks, and a combat of 35, would add (2*35) =70 to the total combat of the unit. In battle, this soldier type would have 2 chances to cause 1 damage each round of combat, and each chance would have a 35% chance of success.

About Battles:

All types of units can also be involved in battles. A battle is a conflict between 2 or more enemy units in the same location (units owned by realms with relations of war). Battles can occur on land, which only involve soldiers, or at sea, which involve both soldiers and ships. You donít need to know all details about battles if you are just starting out, but some important notes are:


There are 3 types of units in the game: Armies, Fleets, and Garrisons. Each unit has a number of troops and/or commanders. Each realm controls a number of units, which can be issued different orders. A brief description of each unit type is:

  1. Armies: These are mobile groups of soldiers, which can march from one province to another, and invade enemy provinces. In addition, an army can be loaded onto a fleet, and transported across seas, and unloaded onto coastal provinces.
  2. Fleets: These are mobile groups of ships, which can have armies loaded aboard. Fleets can sail through seas, or be anchored at provinces with a harbour.
  3. Garrisons: These are similar to armies, but cannot move. This represents a unit tied to a particular location, with orders to remain there and attempt to control the surrounding lands. Any province that has a City and/or fortification will have a garrison. Garrisons will always defend their province, and will never retreat in battle. Unlike other units, garrisons can contain both soldiers and Ships in it. However, a garrison can only contain ships if the province has a City and a harbour.


There are 2 types of Troops in the game: Soldiers and Ships. You can examine the statistics of any troop type from the Location Report, or the Unit Plan. A Soldier represents a formation of armed men that can be placed into armies, such as a regiment of swordsmen. A Ship represents a group of sea-going vessels with crews that are placed into fleets or garrisons, such as a squadron of Longships and their crews. Each type of troop has different ratings and statistics. Note that to make things easier to understand, ships are also referred to as troops, as they include their crews and vessels. Also, referring to a soldier really means a formation of 200 men or more (peasants may represent 400 individuals, while heavy cavalry may represent 100 individuals, etc.) Important notes about troops are:

Building troops:

To recruit troops, go to the map screen and click on a garrison unit in the bottom section. Then go to "available orders" (bottom right side of screen) and select "recruit soldiers". A box will appear, showing you the limit of the province; it might say 0/13. This means you have recruited none, and can build up to 13 this turn. If you recruit two units, it will change to 2/11 (built two, can build eleven more). Pay attention to the price of your units. Make sure you donít try to build what you canít afford. The maximum number of troops you are allowed to build is equal to the maximum resource value for the city, as displayed on the map.

You are limited in your builds to what may be recruited in each city. Capital cities are more likely to give you more options. JB: *GASP* For all players of previous game versions, youíll know this is a total departure from tradition. "Iím okay with it!" is the right attitude. J

The troops you recruit will not be available to you immediately. You are simply ordering them to be recruited. If you can afford them, they will appear where you requested them in your next turnfile.

If you wish to build different kinds of troops than those currently available to you, then conquer cities in different regions, and see what you can build there. A list is not available here of what can be built in each city, as it has been left as a pleasant surprise for you to find out as you play.

When your troops are built, they will be in a garrison. To move them, you will have to put them into an army. If there is no army to transfer them into, click on the garrison, then go to "available orders" (bottom right of map screen) and select "form new unit", then click on the garrison and transfer the troops across to the new unit.

Ctrl+click here to go to Turn Events: Troops Built.


Commanders are skilled generals that can be assigned to lead units. A commander will give valuable bonuses to troops in battle. Some important notes about commanders are:

Different commanders will have different combat potential and very different abilities.

Ctrl+click here to go to Turn Events: Commanders Hired.

Ctrl+click here for more on Commander Modifier.

Ctrl+click here for more on Commanders in Battle.


Fortifications are walled, defensible structures, which can be manned by defenders in time of war. Each province may have a fortification, which gives a defensive bonus to troops defending the province. These structures can be built, upgraded, or razed. The statistics for each fortification level can be seen by examining it from the map menu (go to the Location Report for any location, then click Study, and then select the fortification there). All of the fortifications can be built by any of the players Ė castles are not restricted to civilized nations. Some important notes about fortifications are:

If you conquer a fortified province, and wish to quickly rebuild it, you can do so in two ways. Firstly, if the province is peaceful for the turn, the fortifications will automatically repair, free of charge, by one level per turn. You can also use some troops and gold to build one level of fortification each turn. Eg I reduced the level 2 hillfort to defence level 0. The study view shows that it requires 3 workers and 14 gold to raise the fortification level by one. I have three soldiers in the province, so I order an increase in level to level 3.

The fortifications will repair one level per turn automatically, for no cost, so long as the province is not attacked while repairs are in progress. Repair only happens if there is no battle in a province during a turn, and no pillaging. If all is peaceful, I should have a level 2 fortification next turn. The turn after that, if I build fortifications again, the fortification level will reach four: +1 due to building, +1 automatic repair if peaceful.

Fortifications give combat bonuses to defenders. The cost for each level is 20 gold. You can gain 4 gold by razing a fortification level. The Fighting Room represents the defended areas (such as the tops of walls, and towers) that can hold defenders. Each troop uses a different amount of fighting space, normal troops use 1 (all infantry types), most mounted troops use 2 (all light and heavy cavalry types), and elephants use 4. Infantry types are best for garrisoning fortifications, because they get a greater defensive bonus.  For example, a fortification that can contain 10 light cavalry can contain 20 infantry and archers, but they receive half the hit points and combat bonus than the foot troops do.

Fortification level

Fighting Room Available for Defenders

Combat attack bonus given to infantry units in the fortification

Hit point bonus given to infantry units in the fortification

Combat attack bonus given to cavalry units in the fortification

Hit point bonus given to cavalry units in the fortification

1 Keep






2 Reinforced Keep






3 Hillfort






4 Heavy Hillfort






5 Border Fort






6 Upgraded Border Fort






7 Stronghold






8 Reinforced Stronghold






9 Fortress






10 Heavy Fortress






11 Citadel






12 Reinforced Citadel






Ctrl+click here to go to Turn Events: Construction Happens.

Ctrl+click here to go to Turn Events: Defend Fortification Option Changed.

Ctrl+click here for more on Fortification Modifier.

Ctrl+click here for more on Fortification Hit-points.

Storage And Weight:

Fleets have Storage and Weight ratings that affect the fleetís ability to move. Storage represents the ability to carry things. For example, a fleet has ships with cargo holds. Weight represents the mass, bulkiness and difficulty of carrying a type of troops. Each ship has a different storage. For fleets, the total storage is the storage of all ships added together. If a fleet has more weight than storage capacity, then the fleet will have to dump excess soldiers overboard, until there is enough storage to contain the total weight of all troops loaded aboard. You cannot load an army onto a fleet if the weight of the army is 50% more than the storage of the fleet. But, you can perform transfers between fleets regardless of how this will affect the weight stowed aboard the fleet. But be careful, if a fleet has less storage space than weight (this can happen if a fleet loses ships in a battle or transfers ships out of the fleet), this will cause soldiers to have to be thrown overboard! Commanders have no weight, so this is not a worry for them.

Troops have varying weights, depending on their size and number. For example, a an archer has a weight of only 1, while an elephant weighs 4!

Ctrl+click here to go to Turn Events: Fleet Storage Checked.


A Harbour is a port area in a province where ships can be docked. These are structures that can be built by players for a cost in gold. Harbours are only used for building ships, and for docking a fleet at a province. You do not need a harbour to land your troops amphibiously on a province, or load them from a province. Some provinces have no coastline, either because they are landlocked, or the coast has a barrier. A harbour on such a province has no purpose whatsoever. When a province is captured, there is a small chance that any harbour there will be destroyed in the looting that follows. You can also destroy a harbour if you wish. A harbour can only be located on a province that has a suitable coastline (connected to at least one sea), and also has a City. If a province has a harbour, then fleets can be moved onto that province (otherwise, they cannot).

Warning: Do not keep your fleet in harbour, unless the province is well guarded. If an enemy took possession of the province, all the ships would be scuttled, and some might even be captured by him!


Permission means that an army has been granted the right to move through a province (you donít need this to invade an enemy province. You have permission if you meet one of these conditions:

To give or receive Permission, you can do the following:

All of these things happen before movement, so the change will be made before any forces move. Declaring war also happens before movement, so you can declare war and invade the same turn.

Ctrl+click here to go to Turn Events: Special Permission Changed.


Armies and Fleets can perform movement, which is travelling from 1 location to another. Armies can only march between provinces of course, while fleets can sail between seas or between a sea and a province (sailing to a province represents docking at a harbour there). Each unit has a limited amount of Move-points, which are used for movement, as well as other activities. For movement, the following rules apply:

Note: the Diploware will allow you to order moves that wonít succeed. It will allow you to order your troops to march through six territories Ė even though the most Move-points you can possibly have is four! It is up to you to understand what the rules will allow your troops to succeed in doing in your turn.


Both armies and fleets have Move-points (garrisons canít move of course). Each unit begins each turn with a number of Move-points. For fleets, this is the ship type in the fleet with the least amount of Move-points. For armies, this is the troop type in the army with the least amount of Move-points. For example, Army#2 has a soldier type with 2 Move-points and another soldier type with 3 Move-points in it. The Army will then begin the turn with 2 Move-points (because this is the troop type with the least amount of Move-points). Move-points are used to perform orders by armies and fleets, and are used in the following ways:

  1. If you have Permission, and the province has not changed ownership during the turn, then the Move Cost is 1.
  2. If it is an enemy province, then the Move Cost is 2. If you only have one Move-point left, it is not enough to get you into an enemy territory.
  3. If the province has changed ownership during the turn, then the Move Cost is 2 for the rest of that turn (no matter who owns it and this lasts until the end of the turn). This represents the chaos and disorder of a province after it has been captured, with burned bridges, confusion and refugees on the roads, etc.
  1. Building or destroying any structure (Harbour, Fortification, or Production Area)
  2. Pillaging
  3. Preparing to Board a foreign fleet

When you conquer a territory, you wonít be able to travel through it for one Move-point until next turn. Neither will any other player Ė once a province has been conquered by a player, anyone trying to move troops into that province will have to use two Move-points.

JB: Pay attention to that! You might be used to sending in enough troops to conquer a province, and then bring through slower units for one Move-point in the next phase. That wonít work any more Ė it will cost you two Move-Points to move through for the whole turn, and wonít become a one Move-point province until next turn. Only the provinces that started the turn under your control (and those provinces you had permission to move through at the start of the turn) will allow you to move through for just one Move-point. Moving through two consecutive enemy territories will now work only if your units have four Move-points.

Your army will lose all its Move-points if it is attacked by another playerís troops, unless it happens in your own territory.

Ctrl+click here to go to Turn Events: Fleets Set Sail.

Ctrl+click here to go to Turn Events: Armies March.

Example Movement:

An army, "The Royal Lions" has 2 types of Soldiers, Cavalry and Infantry. Cavalry have 3 Move-points, but Infantry only have 2 Move-points. At the beginning of the turn, the army will have only 2 Move-points (the same as the slowest troop type in the army). This army transfers all of the Infantry into a different army. Now, The Royal Lions will have 3 Move-points (because all of the slow troops are gone). The army moves into a province owned by the same realm, thus using 1 Move-point, so the army will have 3-1=2 Move-points remaining. Now, the army moves into an enemy province, for a cost of 2 Move-points. The army will now have 2-2=0 Move-points remaining, so it canít move any farther in the turn. Example 2: Army A has Cavalry and Infantry. Army A moves through two friendly provinces, using 2 Move-points. Army A then transfers all infantry to Army B. Army A will now have (3-2) =1 Move-point to move. Army B will have 0 Move-points, as the infantry received had used up all movement before being transferred.

Another example:

I have 2 armies that I want to invade with. One army is next to the target province, but the other army is 2 provinces away. What should I do to make sure they both attack at the same time?

I need to have my infantry army hold position on Phase#1, and then attack on Phase#2. I need to have my cavalry army move 1 location on Phase#1, and then attack on Phase#2. This is what will happen:

Phase 1: Infantry stays where it is (no cost), Cavalry moves (cost of 1)

Phase 2: Infantry army attacks (2 move points used), Cavalry attacks (2 move points used), and both will be in the battle.

As a footnote, I could transfer troops before the battle, during Phase#2. But, if I move and then transfer, the receiving army will have the used move points of the giving army! So, I wonít do that. Also, as another footnote, to transfer troops, both units need to be at the same location at the same time, or the action will fail.

A final example:

Illyria has moved troops to the Roman border. The Illyrian army can move to two Roman provinces. The Romans have one army that could stop it. How can they guard both regions? One way is to stay still (hold position) and hope the Illyrians run into you. Or move to the other province. Either way gives you a 50% chance of successfully hitting the enemy army. You could march to the other province, and then march back, but if the enemy has moved to the original province, then you will have used one Move-point already, and it will now cost you 2 Move-points to return to your original province, and unless your whole army is made up of cavalry, you wonít be able to do this. The certain way is to hold position for a phase, then move to the other province. This way, you have a 50% chance of him running into your army, but if not, then you can be certain of hitting your foe in the other province, and you havenít used any Move-points, so you will be able to expend the required 2 Move-points to get to the other province. The only problem with this strategy is that your foe will have invaded the other province, which will result in a little less income for you, even if you recover the province during the same turn. The best option is to know where your foe is going, and to know that you will need to have another player as a spy, within his confidence. It can be done!

Ctrl+click here to go to Turn Events: Armies March.


You will increase the size of your domain by invading enemy provinces and conquering them. You can invade independent provinces without declaring war. To invade provinces owned by another realm, you need to be at war. If you are not at war with a realm, you can only move through its lands if you have Permission. Your forces will never attack neutral or allied forces. As a note, the turn after you invade, you should annex all provinces if possible, and build as many production areas as possible if you intend on holding the province. Provinces only yield revenue if you have annexed them, and this investment will pay for itself many times over during the course of the game.

If two attackers in an independent province are hostile towards each other, the battle will be a 3-way battle; each side will attack all the others. The independentís troops may attack you or the other invader. The one he attacks is random, same with everyone else's forces. For example, you have 10 troops, the other invader has 15, then for each unit owned by the independent, there is a 10/25 chance the independent will attack one of your troops, 15/25 chance of attacking the other invader. The same thing for which troops you will attack, etc.

At the end of a battle, all surviving troops will have 0 Move-points. If you invade an enemy territory and there are no enemy troops there, you may still have Move-points left eg: A Light Cavalry has 4 Move-points. He spends 2 Move-points going to an enemy territory. If there are no enemy troops there, he still has 2 Move-points left, and can make another move. If there is an enemy Light Infantry in the first province he invades, however, and the Light Cavalry eliminates the Light Infantry, it will not be able to move any further Ė he has fought a battle on enemy territory, and his Move-points will be set to 0. Exception: Movement is not lost for battles fought in your own territory.

Ctrl+click here to go to Turn Events: Declare War

Ctrl+click here to go to Turn Events: Armies March.

Amphibious Invasions:

An amphibious invasion is when you unload your army onto an enemy province. This is not when unloading an army onto a Province where you have permission - it is only for enemy provinces. An amphibious Invasion has a chance of failure, which represents the difficulty of forcing a landing on an enemy province, when the invasion may be foiled by even light resistance, unfavourable tides or foul weather, etc. If an amphibious invasion fails, then troops will remain loaded aboard their fleets (no troops will be lost). An amphibious invasionís success depends on the total combat of all forces that are being unloaded (Total Combat is explained in Chapter 3). Add the total combat of all soldiers in all armies being unloaded, and this will be the chance of success (this is the normal combat of all soldiers, without any modifiers). For example, the total troops in all armies being unloaded, amounts to 3 soldiers, and each have a combat of 20 (and each has 1 damage chance). The chance of success will therefore be 3*20=60, so the invasion has a 60% chance of success. An army with 5 soldiers, each with a combat of 25, would have a 5*125=125% chance of success (the invasion would always succeed).

Ctrl+click here to go to Turn Events: All Armies Unloaded onto Provinces.

Coordinating Movement:

Remember that each activity has different rules, and happens in a specific order during turn events. Each activity and the order in which it happens is explained in Chapter 4. Please note that turn events happen in Phases. This is important for coordinating the actions of your units, and in planning joint actions with your allies. Itís best to invade enemy provinces with your units at the same time, so all your combat power is concentrated at the enemy in 1 battle (the quicker you wipe out the enemy, the fewer casualties you will sustain). You can coordinate a cavalry army with an infantry army by having the infantry army wait 1 Phase, while the cavalry army moves next to the target province (the first time you wait, there is not move cost). Then, both units can invade at the same time (having the units invade on different phases can be a disadvantage for you in battles). For example, if your forces are all together, then they may be able to kill the enemy in 1 round of battle. In this case you will suffer less rounds of damage from the enemy (if your enemy lingered for 3 rounds, he could cause many more casualties to your force.)

Note: A movement phase is not regulated by the Move-point cost. All one Move-point orders happen at the same time as the two Move-point orders. The first order happens in the first phase, whether it costs one Move-point, two Move-points or zero Move-points!

Note: Do not confuse the movement phases with the rounds of a battle. If you order an army to enter a province in the first movement phase, and another army to enter in the second phase, the second army will not arrive to save the first one in the second round of its battle. The first armyís battle will be done and over when the second army arrives. This is because a phase represents about a month of actual time, while a battle round represents only one hour of intense fighting.

Ctrl+click here to go to Turn Events: Armies March.

Fleet Loading And Unloading

You can load armies onto fleets, and also unload them. Harbours are not needed for loading or unloading; you can do this without regard to harbours by being in a connected sea (or the fleet can be in the same location). For loading and unloading armies, the following rules apply:


Ctrl+click here to go to Turn Events: Fleets Load Armies.

Ctrl+click here to go to Turn Events: Fleets Load Armies Again.


Transferring is sending troops or commanders out of 1 unit and into another unit. For transferring, the following rules apply:

Ctrl+click here to go to Turn Events: Same Location Transfers Occur.

Ctrl+click here to go to Turn Events: Transfers Happen.

Province Revenue:

Each province yields gold revenue each turn. The amount of revenue a province will produce depends on the damage level of the province. Damage ranges from none to level 3 (the maximum), and occurs from battles and pillaging, and is repaired automatically by the local population (if the conditions are met). Damage affects revenue in the following way:


Income Modifier

Pillaging Modifier




Level 1 (Light)



Level 2 (Medium)



Level 3 (Heavy)



For example, a province normally produces 20 Gold. The province has a damage level of 3, so the amount of the gold gained will be reduced to 50% of the normal value of the province. The calculation is: 20*50%=10, so only 10 Gold will be produced.

When Pillaging, you will receive 90% of the gold the province could provide. Therefore, pillaging purposes, the following formula applies:

(Province Value * Income Modifier) * Pillaging Modifier.

In the previous example, the amount of gold gained would be calculated as such:

20*50%=10, 10*90%=9, so only 9 gold will be produced.

Revenue is gained in 2 ways:

Ctrl+click to go to Turn Events: Province Revenue Gained.

Player Status (Royalty/Commoner)

In days of yore, an individualís bloodline was deemed an important quality in determining his potential. A rulerís personal prestige was vital to retaining followers and maintaining authority over the populace. To represent this, there are 2 playerís statuses for each ruler:

Here are the differences between the 2 statuses:





None Will Join His Cause

2 + Region bonuses


No Limit

No Limit

Annexed Provinces

Maximum of 3 (*)

Maximum of 30 (*)

(*) Your starting provinces do not count towards your annexation limit. Therefore, if your realm starts out with 4 provinces, a Commoner can annex an additional 3, whereas a Royal player can annex an additional 30 total.

Other than the above differences, both statuses are the same. Please note that Royalty status is completely optional, and not necessary at all. The average ruler can forge a powerful realm without it (but it has some useful benefits). Diplomacy is very important in the game (just like in real international politics). If you gather a small coalition together, your position will be strong, regardless of your status. Alliance victories are fine, so commoner status will not prevent you from sharing in the final victory. To see how to rise to Royalty status, go to:


Of course, anyone can change between commoner and royalty status at any time, and you can play as a commoner forever if you like (to see your current player status, go to the Messages Menu and click Player Info).

Ctrl+click here to go to Turn Events: Realm Limits Checked.

Patrons, Client States and Regions:

The main reasons why you would want to be the Client State of another realm are:
1) You wish to become a supporter by sending tribute each turn (10% of revenues).  This may be a useful in your diplomacy with a larger realm. 

2) This allows a group of realms to claim larger Regions.
Patron/Client State relations change at the very end of the turn.  If your Client State revolts from you, he canít attack you the same turn.  This will result in a declaration of war at the very end of the turn, after all
movement and battles are complete.  Also, you wonít gain tribute the same turn your Patron/Client State relations are established.
A Patron can dismiss his Client State.  This is the best way to end the relations, because it wonít result in relations of War (this also happens at the end of the turn).  The next turn, the 2 realms will be neutral to each other (the Patron will still receive his tribute that same turn though).
The Patron/Client State relations are the same as an alliance in all aspects, so your troops will fight together in battles, etc.
A Client State yields 10% of gold revenue to the Patron (including the Client State's income from any sub-Client States), but that doesnít include gifts or proclamation income.
A Region will provide gold revenue, and possibly a commander bonus (depending on the Region) to its owner.  You will gain revenue the same turn that you meet all requirements to own the Region.
A Patron can gain revenue from a Region only if he owns at least 1 province or sub-Region.  So, if your Client States own all of the provinces needed for Region A, you (as Patron) donít get any revenue from that Region (except 10% tribute).  However, if you own at least 1 province in a region, and your Client States or sub-Client States own all the others, then you will gain the title and benefits of that Region.
Only Royalty have the prestige needed to claim a Region, so only they gain the benefits from one.  If you want your Patron to gain the income, he needs to own at least 1 of the provinces in that Region.  However, provinces are received after income is gained, so you wonít gain any revenue the same turn that the province is given to you (the previous owner also gains revenue from the province on the turn it is given).
Patronage helps a realm to claim larger Regions, because all provinces and Regions owned by your Client States and sub-Client States can be used for claiming a title.  For example, Region A requires the ownership of Province B, Province C, and Region D.  You are Royalty and own Province B (so you meet the requirement of owning part of the Region).  Realm A (your Client State) owns Province C, and Realm A's Client State (your sub-Client State) owns Region D.  You now meet all requirements to own the Region:  Your Are Royalty, You own at least 1 Province or sub-Region, and the rest of the required Provinces and sub-Regions are owned by your Client States and/or sub-Client State.  Therefore, you will gain the title and the benefits of the Region.

Achieving Victory:

To discover the victory conditions, click on this hyperlink:




Diplomacy is important in the game, as it was in the Ancient Period. Try to forge some alliances, or at least non-aggression pacts for some of your borders. If another realm wishes passage through your lands, often the best option is to give them special permission to move through a limited number of provinces (this is one of the location orders). Only give full Passage Rights to a realm that you have complete trust in. Diplomacy may occasionally be erratic and unpredictable though. In the Ancient Period, at various times a ruler would fall in battle, perish by illness, or be overthrown. You will find the same holds true in the game, occasionally there will be a replacement for a neighbouring realm, so be aware of the small possibility that a valued alliance could be undone in a season, as a new ruler arises on your border. Also, another realm may go without orders for a time, and this is completely normal: it simply represents a realm in internal turmoil. This can be an opportunity for you, and be prepared to take advantage of this if possible. However, the great majority of realms will remain under competent rule by those seeking to expand. Be wary in your negotiations, and in defending your borders, as some players may resort to deception and a sudden backstab. As the ruler of your realm, you are also solely responsible for diplomatic relations, and neglecting this important element of rulership can be perilous. To do so is to risk waking up one morning to find your realm besieged by enemies on all sides, without any allies to support you!


Armies with all cavalry are useful for rapid campaigns of conquest.

Chapter 6: Battles: Mayhem and Destruction

A battle is a hand-to-hand struggle between opposing groups of enemy forces. There are three types of battles:

All battles happen during Movement Events. During Movement Events, units move, then battles occur for locations which have enemy units in them. In real terms, battles represent a struggle between enemy forces that may last a period of days, beginning with initial skirmishes and probing attacks, as the enemy forces make contact. This is followed by a final massive struggle between opposing forces on the battlefield, where one side achieves victory.

When Battles Occur:

Your forces will always attack those of your enemies. This happens automatically when the forces of enemy realms are in the same location. This is why you declare war on other realms, so that you will engage and hopefully vanquish them in battle, and conquer their provinces. For example, when 2 enemy fleets enter the same sea, a sea battle will happen. Also, when you move an army into an enemy land, and there are enemy soldiers there, a battle will happen, etc. Please remember that you will only attack enemies. Therefore, if your allies attack each other, you will not be involved. For cross-border battles, only armies moving across a particular border at the same time are involved (other units moving across other borders, or in the province are not involved). Land and sea battles are described below briefly, and then there is a Battle Notes section which explains things better. This is a lot of reading. The main thing to know is that you will usually be triumphant if you and your allies have superior combat power and Hit-points.

Ctrl+click here to go to Turn Events: Cross Border Battles.

Note: You donít need to know all of the details about battles. The most important thing to know is to arrange your campaigns so that your forces outnumber the enemy as much as possible. If you outnumber the enemy, you will usually win. That is enough to know for your first few game turns.

Land Battles:

Land battles are fought the same way, whether they are normal province battles or cross-border battles. Fleets and ships will be docked away from the battlefield, so ships will never be involved in a Land battle. Commanders have Hit-points and a combat statistic, and are treated exactly like soldiers for the purpose of battle. Armies will fight normally whether they are loaded onto fleets or not. The steps for resolving this kind of conflict are:

Ctrl+click here to go to Turn Events: Land Battles are Fought.

Siege Damage Occurs:

This step is only for a battle in a province where there is a fortification (otherwise it does not apply). Of course, this does not apply for cross-border battles. Various types of troops have Siege Power. This represents the ability to destroy fortification defenses (like Siege Machines hurling large stones to shatter walls, etc.) Of course, troops only attack enemy fortifications, and cause no damage to neutral or allied fortifications. Each troop with Siege Power has one opportunity to increase the Damage level of a fortification +1 per battle (this only happens 1 time before the battle begins). The Siegecraft of the unit leader will increase the Siege Power of troops. For example, Siege Machines have a Siege Power of 50. An army with no commander, and 3 Siege Machines would have 3 attempts to cause damage, and each attempt would have a 50% chance of success (so if you were really lucky, you could increase fortification damage +3, and if unlucky you would cause no damage). The maximum damage that fortifications can have is the fortification level of the province (so, for example, a level 2 fortification could have a max of 2 damage - such a fortification gives no bonus to defenders). After all enemy troops use their Siege Power, fortification damage is assessed. Fortification damage will decrease the bonus gained by defenders (for example, a level 6 fortification with 4 damage would have its effectiveness reduced to a level 2 fortification, because 6-4=2). When a unit successfully increases the damage of a fortification, this will improve the Siegecraft of the unit leader (Siegecraft can only be improved 1 time per turn). Total Siege Power for a soldier is modified by the Siegecraft of the commander, as determined by:

(Siege Power)+(Siege Power)*(Siegecraft)/200%

For example, a soldier has a Siege Power of 30, and the leader of the unit has a Siegecraft of 42. So, the total Siege Power of the soldier will be:


Therefore, the soldier will have a 36.3% chance of causing +1 damage to the fortification (even fractions help a little bit).

Units Commit to Defending Fortifications:

This is only for normal province battles where there is a fortification in the province (not for cross-border battles). This step is to see if any units will commit to defending a fortification or not (they make the final decision after assessing the damage to the fortification). Units gain a bonus if there is a fortification, and they are defending it. Note that Fortification damage only happens prior to battle rounds (it does not happen after units commit to defending fortifications). The bonus will increase their combat, and add Hit-points (the fortification bonus depends on the type of fortification). However, a unit cannot retreat if it defends a fortification. A unit will defend the fortification only if all conditions are met:

Battle Rounds Begin:
Now, the battle begins. There are a number of rounds of battle, as general combat occurs (see the example battle for a better idea of how battles are fought). Each round, all troops cause damage against enemy troops. At the end of each round, if there are still enemies remaining, then battle will continue for another round. If there are no enemies remaining on the field (they have retreated or have been destroyed), then the battle will be concluded. For example, if a unit has a total of 10 hit points, then it will take 10 damage to destroy that unit. For you to arise victorious, all enemy troops must have retreated or been destroyed. If there is even 1 enemy unit that has not been wiped out, then all enemy troops will continue to make hits for another round.

Troops Cause Damage:

The first step of a round of battle is for all soldiers to cause damage. All soldiers will cause damage the same way, no matter what rank they are in. All troops in a unit also continue to cause damage against the enemy until the unit retreats, or all friendly troops have been wiped out. Each troop has a Combat, which is the chance of causing 1 damage. Some troops may have more than 1 chance to cause damage. The chance of a troop causing damage is explained better in Battle Notes. Ships are not involved in land battles.

Ctrl+click here to see an example of combat.

Determine Casualties:

Casualties take effect at the end of every second round. They accumulate every round. For each round of the battle, the damage made by troops against the enemy is determined. This damage is added to enemy units. For example, Unit A causes 5 damage, so this 5 damage will be applied to enemy units. The enemy unit that takes the damage depends on which troops are in the front ranks. Troops in front ranks take damage first, and friendly units work together for the purpose of taking damage (friendly means they are owned by the same realm, allied realms, or realms with feudal relations). For example, Unit A only has troops in Rank#3, and friendly Unit B has only troops in Rank#4. Because these 2 units are friendly, Unit A will take full damage before Unit B takes any damage, because Unit Aís troops are in the front ranks, and thus are shielding Unit B.

If a troop has 2.1 hit points, then it will take 3 hits to kill it (if there were 3 of them, it would take 7 hits to kill their combined 6.3 hit points). Fractions are used because troops also gain a bonus from fortifications, which will add fractions.

Casualties are determined every round, but the hits only take effect in removing troops every second round. This means that units eliminated in odd rounds still get to fire in the following round, even if they are technically "killed". This does not apply if a force is wiped out however Ė the battle ends when that happens, whether it is a casualty round or not. JB: consider this Ė your foe has a fast moving trooper, about to enter your lands. You have one peasant who can stand in his way. Put the peasant in the second rank, set retreat to first rank. The peasant will engage in one round of combat, then retreat. The peasant may die in the Battle Aftermath, but the battle forces the fast moving foe to stop, and the enemy only has one round in which to inflict the fatal hit that would kill your peasant.

Ctrl+click here for more on Determining Casualties.

Units Retreat:

At this point, armies may retreat. If an army is following another unit, it will only retreat when that unit retreats. This is determined by the Follow option of a unit (if the leading unit is not in the battle, then this has no effect). If an army is not following another unit, then it will retreat based on its retreat level. This is explained in Battle Notes. Units that retreat are removed from the battle. The damage caused to the unit will result in casualties, which are listed at the end of the battle.

Battle Continues Or Ends:

If there are still enemy units on the battlefield that are not wiped out, and have not retreated, then battle will continue. In this case, there will be another round of battle. The troops in a unit will all make hits normally, no matter how much damage the unit has taken so far, or what ranks troops are in. This simulates the simultaneous nature of the combat. If all enemy units are wiped out, or have retreated, then the battle will be over. In that case, all troops that are casualties will be determined, and Battle Aftermath will happen (which is explained in Battle Notes). A troop that takes wounds will have a chance of being destroyed at this time. This is for both the victors and vanquished. For example, if a cavalry unit had only 2 hits made against it, then it is wounded. This is because cavalry have 3 hit points, and so it takes 3 hits to destroy one. A cavalry with 2 wounds would have a 2/3 chance of being destroyed at the end of the battle, regardless of who won the battle.

Sea Battles:

Sea battles represent a clash of ships at sea, which involve both seagoing vessels and troops aboard ships that are fighting as marines. The process for resolving sea battles is similar to land battles. Commanders have Hit-points and a combat statistic, and are treated exactly like soldiers for the purpose of battle. The steps for resolving this kind of conflict are:

Battle Rounds Begin:
The battle will be fought in a number of rounds, as general combat occurs (see the example battle for a better idea of how battles are fought). Each round, all troops cause damage against enemy troops. Both ships and soldiers may participate in the battle. An army will be involved if it is loaded aboard a fleet, and has standing orders to engage in Sea Battles. An army with standing orders to remain below decks during sea battles will not be involved. The number of soldiers that can participate is limited to the Marine Capacity of the fleet. If there are more soldiers than available Marine Capacity, then the soldiers in the front ranks will be involved. If these marines are killed, they will not be replaced by other troops on the fleet. At the end of each round, if there are still enemy ships remaining, then battle will continue for another round (only ships are used to determine if battle will continue - not soldiers). If there are no enemy ships remaining in the sea (they have retreated or have been destroyed), then the battle will be concluded. For example, if a unit has a total of 10 hit points, then it will take 10 damage to destroy that unit. For you to be victorious, all enemy troops must have retreated or been destroyed. If there is even 1 enemy unit that has not been wiped out, then all enemy troops will continue to make hits for another round.

Troops Cause Damage:

The first step of a round of battle is for all ships and marines to cause damage. Marines are soldiers in armies that are in the Marine Area of the fleet (the amount of marines a fleet can have depends on the total Marine Capacity of the fleet). All marines and ships will cause damage the same way, no matter what rank they are in. Each troop has a Combat, which is the chance of causing damage. Some troops may have more than 1 chance to cause damage. The chance of a troop causing damage is explained better in Battle Notes. All ships and soldiers cause and make hits against each other.  You can organize your troops in ranks (like put the ships in the rear, soldiers up front) if you wish.  Soldiers are more likely to be taken as casualties
though. Better for them to die fighting than drown when their ship sinks.

Determine Casualties:

For each round of the battle, the damage made by troops against the enemy is determined. This damage is added to enemy units. For example, Unit A causes 5 damage, so this 5 damage will be applied to enemy units. The enemy unit that takes the damage depends on which troops are in the front ranks. Troops in front ranks take damage first, and friendly units work together for the purpose of taking damage (friendly means they are owned by the same realm, allied realms, or realms with feudal relations). For example, Unit A only has troops in Rank#3, and friendly Unit B has only troops in Rank#4. Because these 2 units are friendly, Unit A will take full damage before Unit B takes any damage, because Unit Aís troops are in the front ranks, and thus are shielding Unit B.

Ctrl+click here for more on Causing Damage.

Casualties Are Destroyed:

Casualties are only destroyed on even-numbered rounds (like Round 2, 4, 6, etc., but not 1, 3, 5, etc.) The hits made on odd-numbered rounds are remembered, and will cause casualties on even numbered rounds. For example, you make 3 hits on Round 1, and 4 hits on Round 2. You will not cause any enemy casualties on Round 1, but you will cause 7 damage worth of enemy casualties on Round 2.

Units Retreat:

At this point, fleets may retreat. Armies never retreat from sea battles on their own, they only retreat if the fleet they are loaded onto retreats. If a fleet is following another unit, it will only retreat when that unit retreats. If a fleet is not following another unit, then it will retreat based on its retreat level. This is explained in Battle Notes. The damage caused to the unit will result in casualties, which are listed at the end of the battle. This chance is the same whether a unit is victorious in battle or not. If all ships in a retreating unit are destroyed, then any commanders will automatically transfer to other fleets owned by the same realm (if there is no such fleet available, the commanders will be lost at sea).

Battle Continues Or Ends:

If there are still enemy fleets on the battlefield that are not wiped out, and have not retreated, then battle will continue (armies do not matter for determining whether battle will continue). In this case, there will be another round of battle. If all enemy units are wiped out, or have retreated, then the battle will be over. In that case, all troops that are casualties will be determined, and Battle Aftermath will happen (which is explained in Battle Notes).

Ctrl+click here to go to Turn Events: Sea Battles are Fought.

Battle Notes:

Here are a number of notes regarding battles, where certain things are explained in more depth. Many of these notes apply for all types of battles, so they are listed here to save time. Please note that the units listed here are not units in Age of Conquest. But for the purposes of understanding battle, theyíll suffice.

Battle reports:

The battle report shows all of the units in the battle, then the rounds of battle. Here is an example battle report, which you will get on the Messages menu of the Diploware:

A land battle occurred at:119 Eradas

[The location of the battle is shown]

The following units were involved:

Patrol Force 2 (Our Army #2), without any modifiers (Total Combat: 200, Total Hit Points: 6)

Independent Army #20, defending the fortifications (with the fortification modifier) (Total Combat: 80, Total Hit Points: 4)

[All units in the battle are shown. The modifiers for the unit are indicated, then the total Combat and total Hit Points of all troops in the unit are shown. This gives you a good idea of the relative strength of the units involved].

The events for Round #1:

[The battle occurs in a number of rounds]

Patrol Force 2 (Our Army #2) (Retreat Level 5):

1 Elephant Rider Caused 2 Damage

[This unit made 2 hits this round]

Independent Army #20 (Retreat Level 5):

2 Dwarf Militia Caused 2 Damage

[This unit made 2 hits also this round]

Unit Status for the End of this Round: #1:

Patrol Force 2 (Our Army #2) suffered 2 damage (Total Hit Points: 6, Total Damage Taken: 2)

Independent Army #20 suffered 2 damage (Total Hit Points: 4, Total Damage Taken: 2)

[This shows the damage sustained by all units for this round, and the total hit points that each unit has. For example, Patrol Force 2 has 6 hit points, and has taken 1 damage].

Casualties: None (this is not a casualty round)

[Casualties are only taken on even numbered rounds. So the damage done in Round#1 will cause casualties in Round#2. Any retreats will happen at the end of a round, but there are none in this battle. A unit that successfully retreats will not suffer any additional damage in additional rounds of battle].

The events for Round #2:

[This is the next round, Round 2]

Patrol Force 2 (Our Army #2) (Retreat Level 5):

1 Elephant Rider Caused 2 Damage

[The Elephant Rider made 2 hits again]

Independent Army #20 (Retreat Level 5):

2 Dwarf Milita Caused 1 Damage

[The Dwarf Militia only made 1 hit this time]

Unit Status for the End of this Round: #2:

Patrol Force 2 (Our Army #2) suffered 1 damage (Total Hit Points: 6, Total Damage Taken: 3)

Independent Army #20 suffered 2 damage (Total Hit Points: 4, Total Damage Taken: 4)

[Now, the total hit points and damage taken is shown, as it is the end of round#2. Patrol Force 2 is still alive, but Independent Army#20 will be wiped out, because the damage taken is the same as the hit points of the unit].

Casualties for Round #2:

Patrol Force 2 (Our Army #2) suffered 3 damage, with these losses:


[The damage this unit sustained in Round 1 and Round 2 now causes casualties, but the Elephant Rider has four hit points and survives].

Independent Army #20 suffered 4 damage, with these losses:

2 Dwarf Militia (Hit Points: 2) are killed, 0 more Damage remains

[The damage this unit sustained in Round 1 and Round 2 now causes casualties, which results in 2 Dwarf Militia being destroyed].

The battle has ended.

[The battle is now complete, because there are no hostile forces remaining in this location. The independent army was wiped out, and this leaves Patrol Force 2 holding the field, victorious].

[Any Wounded Troops are now listed, and whether they are destroyed or not. This is for both the victors and vanquished. For example, since Patrol Force 2 had 3 hits made against it, then the Elephant Rider has a 3/4 chance of being destroyed at the end of the battle, regardless of who won the battle].

Ctrl+click here to go to Battles: Troops Determine Casualties.

Causing Damage:

In a battle, each troop (soldier or ship) has a chance of causing damage to enemy troops (some troops have more than 1 chance). Commanders cause damage exactly like soldiers do (this represents the commanderís personal guard). In a land battle, causing damage could represent a regiment of cavalry charging down against the foe and severely mauling them. In a sea battle, causing damage could represent a squadron of galleys bearing down on enemy vessels, ramming or boarding them, thus damaging some and sinking others. All troops in a battle will cause damage, no matter what rank they are in. The chance of a troop causing damage depends on the Combat of the troop. For example, a combat of 30 would mean a 30% chance of causing damage. Most troops have 2 chances to cause damage, but some troops may have more chances, and others only 1. For example, a troop with 2 chances to cause damage, and a combat of 20, would have 2 attempts to cause damage, each with a 20% chance of success (the troop could actually cause 2 damage if it was really lucky). The combat of a troop has various modifiers. If the modified Combat is 100 or greater, then it will be reduced to 99 (there is a maximum of a 99% chance of success). The combat of a troop may have modifiers, based on the situation of the troop in the battle. To determine the total combat of a troop, after all modifiers, see the following list:

(the soldier was not landed amphibiously, is not defended by a fortification, and is not fighting in a sea battle):

The Marine Modifier is only for soldiers that are involved in a sea battle (not for land battles). This represents the effectiveness of the soldier type in storming enemy vessels (cavalry usually have a sizeable negative modifier for this, because they will be dismounted when fighting as marines). Only the soldiers fighting as Marines gain this modifier. The maximum number of marines that a fleet has room for is the total Marine Capacity of all ships in the fleet. This is different for each type of soldier (there is a big negative for cavalry, who will be dismounted during sea engagements) For example, if the marines modifier was -50%, then you would multiply the combat by 0.5.

(The fortification modifier is explained further down).

The Amphibious Modifier is used when the soldier has been unloaded onto an enemy province. This represents the decrease in combat effectiveness soon after the soldier has been landed onto enemy territory (the unit will generally be unloaded on poor defensive coastland, horses are weakened from the sea voyage, etc.) This only affects the troops that have been unloaded from fleets onto an enemy province, and only for the phase that they are unloaded on (unloading onto friendly provinces has no effect). For other phases of the same turn, this modifier is not used. For example, if the amphibious modifier was -25%, then you would multiply the combat by 0.75. If the amphibious modifier was +10%, then you would multiply the combat by 1.1.

Ctrl+click here to go to Battles: Land Troops Cause Damage.

Ctrl+click here to go to Battles: Sea Troops Cause Damage.

Commander Modifier:

The Commander modifier is determined by the commander that is the leader of the unit. If there is no leader, then of course there is no modifier. This is for both soldiers and ships. Each Commander in the game has a rating in 4 types of tactics: Infantry, Cavalry, Siege, and Naval Tactics. Each troop gains a bonus based on the Tactics of the commander that is the leader of the unit (any other commanders not leading the unit give no bonus). The tactics bonus is determined by:


For example, a troop has a Combat of 30, and is a Foot type. The leader has a rating of 46 for infantry tactics. There is no fortification involved, so the Number is 200. Therefore, the bonus for the troop will be: 30*46/200=6.9 (even fractions help out a little bit). If the normal combat of the troop was 30, then the combat will now be 30+6.9=36.9, so the troop will have a 36.9% chance of causing damage. A different modifier would be gained by Mounted type troops in the same unit.

If the commander had a +20 modifier for mounted troops, then a Light Bear Rider (combat 90%, or 2x45%) will improve by 9%. 90*20/200=9 90+9=99% But remember Light Cavalry have two hits at half their total, so it will actually be 2x 49.5%

Other armies in the same province are not affected by a commander. Only the troops in the same army as the commander can gain the benefit of the commanderís modifier.

Ctrl+click here to go to Details: Commanders.

Fortification Modifier:

If a soldier is defending a fortification in a battle, he will receive a modifier. This is not for Ships or for cross-border battles. The fortification modifier represents a soldierís greater effectiveness against other soldiers (for example, a defender pouring boiling oil on the poor bastards trying to climb up siege ladders). Cavalry receive a much smaller modifier than other troops, as they have difficulty bringing their mounted strength to bear (although they are assumed to be sallying forth at times during the battle). The number of troops that gains the fortification modifier is different for each type of fortification, and is based on the Barracks space (this represents the limited space for troops manning the walls and ramparts, other troops must sally outside to bring their strength to bear). For example, if a type of fortification had Barracks Space of 12, then only troops whose combined Fighting room does not exceed 12 would gain the modifier each round, and others would not (the troops that gain the modifier are randomly determined every round).

Soldiers in garrisons will always defend the fortification. For armies, this depends on their standing orders. An army with standing orders to defend fortifications will defend if the fortification is not ruined. An army with standing orders to remain outside of fortifications will never defend fortifications. In addition, the province must be owned by you or an ally. The modifier gained depends on:

(Fort Level-Damage)

For example, a fortification of level 8 that had 2 damage would be the same as a level 6 fortification (8-2=6). Each level of fortification has a different bonus for Infantry or Cavalry. A soldier with no tactics type would gain no modifier. For example, a fortification is Level 5, with 3 damage, 5-3=2, so the benefit will be for Fortification Level 2. Fortification Level 2 gives a combat bonus of +47% for Foot soldiers. A Foot soldier defending the fortification with a normal combat of 40 would have its combat increased to 40+47%=58.

Ctrl+click here to go to Details: Fortifications.

Whoever owns the province at the end of the phase before the invasion (and his allies) will be protected by the fortifications. If you have two allies, and they are at war with each other in your fortified province, they can both get the benefit of your defences.

If the province changes ownership in a phase, then the new owner gains the defensive bonus. The old owner would then become the invader if his troops arrived in the province in a later phase of the same turn.

Commanders in Battle:

Each commander has a Hit-points and combat statistic, which is usually small, and represents the small cadre of the commanderís personal guards and retinue. Commanders act exactly like soldiers in all battles, as well as giving the leader bonus to a unit. Commanders are always in Rank#5 (reserves), so they will be taken as casualties last, no matter what. The commander will only affect the troops of the army he is in. He will not affect other armies in the same province, neither will he affect the troops of your allies. If you had several troops in the fifth rank, and the commander is killed, the remaining troops will act as though they have no commander.

Ctrl+click here to go to Details: Commanders.


Each troop has a Hit-points rating. This represents the constitution of the troop; how difficult it is to destroy. For example, heavy infantry represent a hardened band of well-armoured foot troops, which would be more difficult to destroy than lightly armed peasants - accordingly, the heavy infantry have more Hit-points. Hit-points determine how much damage a troop can take before it is destroyed in battle. For example, a troop with 2 Hit-points would take 2 damage to destroy.

Fortification Hit-point Bonus:

Each type of soldier will gain a Hit-point bonus when defending a fortification, based on the fortification type, and the type of soldier. This is only gained by a soldier defending a fortification (this is not for Ships or cross-border battles). The troops that will gain the bonus depends on the Barracks space of a fortification. For example, if the barracks space was 12, then in each round 12 infantry or 6 cavalry or 3 elephants would receive the bonus. Each fortification gives a different Hit-point bonus, based on the type of soldier. For example, a Fort Level gives 0.5 Hit-point bonus to cavalry, and 1.3 Hit-point bonus to Foot. So, a cavalry troop that had normal Hit-points of 3 would have 3+0.5=3.5 Hit-points when defending the fortification, and a foot troop that had normal Hit-points of 1 would have 1+1.3=2.3 Hit-points when defending the fortification.

The hit point bonus to troops defending a fortification is assigned randomly.  So, if you have more troops defending than barracks space available, a troop lost in that battle might be one that did not gain the hit point bonus (but the combat bonus is always gained each round).

Ctrl+click here to go to Details: Fortifications.

About Retreating:

At the end of each round of battle, units may retreat. Only armies and fleets can retreat (not garrisons). Also, armies that are defending a fortification (based on the Defend Fortifications Option) cannot retreat, as they are within the fortification walls, surrounded by the enemy. For each army and fleet, there is a Retreat Level. If a unit is following another unit, then it will ignore the retreat level, and only retreat if the leading unit retreats (but only if the leading unit is involved in the battle, otherwise it is ignored). If a unit is not following another unit, then the retreat level is used. So, as you can see, following takes precedence over the retreat level: this allows you to have all your units retreat at the same time if you wish (if all units are following the same leading unit, then they will all retreat when the leading unit does). This is a rank from 1 to 5. If all troops in this rank and all lowered numbered ranks are casualties, then the unit will attempt to retreat. If at least 1 troop in this rank or any lower-numbered rank is not a casualty, then the unit will not attempt to retreat. For example, the retreat level is 3, so the unit will attempt to retreat when all troops are casualties in ranks 1, 2 and 3. When a unit attempts to retreat, it will try to move to a connected location. An invading army will try to retreat to the province it invaded from. An army can only retreat to a province that you have Permission for, and which has no enemy troops. If following, a unit will retreat to the same location as the leading unit, if possible. Otherwise, a unit will attempt to move back to the location where it came from. For a cross-border battle, there is no retreat location needed, because a retreating unit will simply remain where it was before invading across the border. If an army takes heavy damage during a round of battle, it may have casualties in ranks lower than the retreat rank (or, it may possibly be wiped out in a round before it can retreat). In such a case, a unit will retreat as soon as it can. So, if a unit had all troops in Rank#1, and a retreat level of 1, the unit might still be destroyed if all troops became casualties in the first round of battle. When a unit successfully retreats:


When you go to war, working with an ally against a common foe, there are some things to be aware of.

Your troops work as though part of the same nation. If all your troops are in the first rank, and all your allyís troops are in ranks two to five, all of your troops will take damage before any of your allyís. Itís worth your while to discuss how all your troops will be ranked. Thereís usually no point losing your heavy cavalry to protect your allyís peasants.

Breaking up with an ally:

There are a few things you should know about what happens when you break up with an ally.

1) If your ally goes neutral with you, thereís a good chance youíll be at war the turn after. If you gave your ex-ally passage rights, thereís a good chance youíll find foreign troops roaming through your lands. The lands will still belong to you this turn, but next turn when war is declared, youíre likely to lose those lands, and the ones near to them. If your troops are near the enemy, then combat will not immediately occur Ė examine the turn event list, and youíll see that there will be a phase of movement before combat and province ownership changes Ė your troops will get the chance to move and engage or evade the enemy. Finally, if your troops are moving through their lands, and they withdraw passage rights from you, then your troops will be stuck if there is no neighbouring province they can move to. Your only options here are to ask for passage rights to be returned, or go to war, or have another player with whom you have passage rights to attack an adjacent province.

2) If youíre doing the stabbing, then there are a few things to remember. Get as many of your troops marching through your victimís lands, so that next turn you can take as much of his land as possible, ruining his economy. Try to ensure you get your victimís cities, so that he canít build new troops to fight you. And remember that ownership change does not occur before movement, so you may want to hold position for a phase in the next turn when you declare war, so that you conquer the lands you have moved onto during the turn you went neutral. Also remember to withdraw passage rights from your ex-ally in the same turn you go neutral. This plan, by the way, is very nasty, and likely to get your victim very hot under the collar. But if youíve ruined his economy and can defeat his army, you only have to worry about the envious glances youíre getting from every other player in the game. J

3) If your allies break up, and you are still allies with them, then in any fights where your troops are present, your troops will not fight either of them. Your troops will watch the battle, because you are not at war with either of the combatants. If they fight in your fortified province, they could both get the benefit of your fortifications!

Battle Aftermath:

When battle ends, these events happen:

Choose wisely thy forces, keeping in mind the task at hand.

Chapter 7: Troops

There are different troops in the game. These can be built in garrisons where there is a population center (use Map Options to show population centers on the diploware). Each population center has different troops available, based on the region (for example, elves can only be raised in some cities, while orcs are only found in other, different locations). If you would like a printout that gets them all on one A4 page, look for it just before the FAQ at the end of the document.

Some notes about troops are:

1) The weight of troops varies according to their size, type, and race.

2) All troops have an amphibious modifier of -30% for amphibious invasions, except for certain types of infantry ("Marine" type) that suffer no penalty.

3) All foot troops can be involved in naval battles, where they fight as marines aboard ship. In such battles, all infantry (including mounted infantry) have a marine modifier of -30%, except for "Marine" types that suffer no penalty. Archers have only a -10% modifier.

4) All cavalry have a marine modifier of -50%.

5) All ships and siege machines can be salvaged for materials, which yields gold in the amount of about 1/3 of the build cost.

5) Transport ships and Siege Engines have a 20% chance of capture in battle, while warships have a 10% chance of capture. Only troops that are casualties can be captured, and only the victors of the battle capture troops.


Fortifications give combat bonuses to defenders. The cost and gold you can gain from razing a level is shown by examining the fortification on the diploware.

Thou must rule thy realm with strength and wisdom.

Chapter 8: Realms

Each player inherits the throne of a random realm. The different realms begin in a roughly equal standing. You can strengthen your position by allying with your local neighbours, but do not leave yourself undefended. Also, be sure to leave yourself a route of expansion, as you will need to vanquish a swath of territory in order to claim victory. There are many independent provinces, that claim loyalty to no realm (these will attack intruders).

If a realm is controlled by Local (or "independent") Forces, this means the computer is in control.  Such a realm will build troops and defend its lands.  It will only attack provinces that are annexed to it, no others.  It wonít change its existing diplomatic relations.  Even if you are at war with such a realm, it wonít invade provinces unless they are annexed to its realm.

The organized realms (which have players) are:

1) Cimmerians (Cimmerian Bosporus)

Cimmerians were an ancient people who lived north of the Black Sea, who gave their name to the region (the origin of the word Crimea). At this time the Cimmerians (meaning the Cimmerian Bosporus) comprise a wealthy Hellenistic state, with numerous Greek cities along the North Black Sea coast, in addition to hordes of Sarmation and other tribal allies. Under the mighty Spartocos line of Kings, they comprise a powerful trading realm, exporting wheat, fish and slaves, textiles and gold work across the Black Sea and Aegean coasts.

Historical Fate: Remained a strong independent trading empire, involved in wars in Anatolia, occaisonally siding with Rome in her wars, finally overrun by the Goths in 341 AD.

Symbol: Pegasus

2) Massilia

A powerful Greek trading state, during this period it controls the a great deal of commerce across France, Northern Spain and Britain through the Rhone river (gave their name to the city of Marseilles). It is a realm renowned as a cultural center and for the wisdom of its laws, whose sailors have explored the Atlantic coasts of Spain and France, circumnavigated Britain, and sailed to the Baltic. With many settlements across southern Gaul and with local Celtic allies, it is a strong power in the region.

Historical Fate: Engaged in battles with the Etruscans and Carthaginians over trade issues for centuries, during the Second Punic War aided the Romans. In 50 BC, eventually became involved in the civil war between Caesar and Pompey, and after choosing the losing side, was subjugated by Caesar.

Symbol: Sea Beast

3) Thrace:

A powerful region of the Macedonian Empire under Alexander the Great, with warlike and ferocious tribes in the mountainous regions, and civilized settlements in the plains, under the influence of Greek culture. The region is controlled by Lysimachus, a distinguished general under Alexander the Great who has become King of Thrace after Alexander's death.

Historical Fate: In the diodachi wars, Lysimachus captured large dominions across Asia Minor, but was eventually killed in battle with Seleucus in 282 BC.

Symbol: Stallion

  1. Bythinia:
  2. A strong region in Northern Anatolia, with rich agricultural land and productive forests. The kingdom managed to defeat Alexander the Great's armies and remained independent throughout Alexander's reign. At this time, the realm is ruled by Zipoites I, a powerful warlord.

    Historical Fate: the kingdom of Bithynia held a considerable place among the monarchies of Anatolia throughout the diadochi wars and afterwards, founding several important cities. After centuries of self rule, their last king, Nicomedes IV, was unable to maintain himself against Mithradates of Pontus, and, after being restored to his throne by the Roman Senate, he bequeathed his kingdom by will to the Romans (74 BC).

    Symbol: Scorpion

  3. Phrygia:
  4. An important region of Anatolia, with numerous cities, including Gordium (where the Gordian knot was cut by Alexander). Alexander the Great's famed general Antigonus Monophthalmus ("the One-eyed", so called from his having lost an eye) was appointed governor of Greater Phrygia in 333 BC, and assumed kingship over the region after Alexander's death, and has begun a campaign to enlarge his dominions.

    Historical Fate: Antigonus was one of the most powerful of the diadochi, expanding his realm continually, with the dream of re-uniting Alexander's empire. Eventually his success was his downfall, as he found himself at war with the 4 remaining diadochi, and died in the battle of Ipsus at age 81, never having lost a battle before this. His kingdom was divided up mainly between Lysimachus and Seleucus.

    Symbol: Bull

  5. Cappadocia: [Also later capital of Mithridates of Pontus]
  6. This Eastern region of Anatolia is ruled by a strong aristocracy and protected by numerous powerful fortresses. The province became a tributary to Alexander the Great, upon whose death the province came under the rule of Alexander's general Eumenes. Eumenes is a stalwart supporter of Alexander's most trusted general, Perdiccas, and is a power base for Perdiccas's attempts to re-unite the empire.

    Historical Fate: Perdiccas was appointed regent for Alexander the Great's empire, but his attempts to re-unite the empire eventually failed, and he was assassinated in Egypt in 320 BC. Upon his death and that of Eumenes, Cappadocia remained an independent kingdom under native rule, being involved in Roman civil wars playing each side against the other, but finally falling under Roman rule in 17 AD.

    Symbol: Centaur

  7. Phoenicia:
  8. A region in the Levant with numerous powerful trading cities along the coast, and links to important trade routes to Babylon and the east. At this time, the region is ruled by Seleucus, Alexander the Great's mighty general. Seleucus is busy preparing forces for the coming conflicts that he can foresee ahead.

    Historical Fate: Seleucus was the most successful of the diadochi, involved in numerous devious plots and shifting alliances. Eventually, he succeeded in expanding his realm from the Levant far to the east to include almost the whole of Alexander's conquests except for those in Europe and Egypt. Before he could unify the entire empire he was assassinated in 281 BC., but his descendants founded the Seleucid empire upon his death, there being over 30 kings of the Seleucid dynasty from 323 to 60 BC. In its day one of the world's greatest empires, the Seleucid Empire eventually collapsed amidst civil war, Parthian invasion from the East, and Roman depredations from the West.

    Symbol: Royal Lion

  9. Dacia:
  10. This region comprising much of modern Romania is populated by Dacian tribes such as the Getae (described by Commanderdotus as "the noblest as well as the most just of all the Thracian tribes). It is a region characterized by a complex of fortified cities, with their capital at Sarmizegetusa. Though a very war-like people, the Dacians are also astute diplomats. They rule a wide territory, and can draw on a massive reserve of manpower for their armies.

    Historical Fate: The Getae defeated and captured Lysimachus of Thrace, then forged an alliance and released him. The Dacians maintained a powerful kingdom in the north Balkans, being involved in numerous wars with Rome. Southern Dacia finally fell under Roman rule in 106 BC, while the North continued as an independent realm for centuries afterwards.

    Symbol: Draco

  11. Egypt:
  12. Watered by the the Nile, the most fertile of rivers, Egypt has a large population and a great deal of commercial interests. At this time, Egypt is ruled by Ptolemy Soter, one of Alexander the Great's most trusted generals, who seized the region upon Alexander's death. Ptolemy holds a strong position in the coming wars ahead, with a disciplined army and secure southern flank.

    Historical Fate: Ptolemy was heavily involved in the intrigues among the diadochi, continuously securing his hold over Egypt. He founded the Ptolemaic dynasty, which ruled Egypt until the time of Caesar. Cleopatra was the last ruling member of the dynasty.

    Symbol: Symbol of Osiris

  13. Carthage:
  14. Located in central Africa, the surrounding lands at this time are lush and well-tended. Carthage is the commercial center of the central Mediterranean, with trade links along the Mediterranean coast, extending along Spain and Southwestern Britain. With disciplined armies and brilliant leaders, Carthage is a powerful contender to dominate the Mediterranan region.

    Historial Fate: Carthage eventually expanded its control over Spain, Southern Gaul and Sicily, but met increasing Roman opposition. After a series of wars with Rome, their capital city was razed in 146 BC by the victorious Romans, their population enslaved.

    Symbol: Tanit, Consort of Baal

  15. Celtiberia:
  16. This Eastern region of Spain is inhabited by a mixed race of Greeks, native Iberians and Celts. With several Greek settlements along the coast loosely allied with Celtic tribes, the region has a large population of skilled warriors at its disposal. The dominant tribe are the Arevaci, who dominate their neighbors from powerful strongholds such as Okilis and rally resistance from invaders.

    Historical Fate: The Celtiberians joined Carthage as allies during the Second Punic War, and crossed the Alps under Hannibal's command. After numerous battlefield successes, the war was lost, and the region eventually fell under the sway of Rome, though it took until 72 BC for the tribes to be fully pacified.

    Symbol: Mark of Leucetios, God of Thunder

  17. Greece:
  18. The city states of the Pelopenessus, led by Athens, Sparta, and Thebes, control a great deal of the trade in the Aegean shores. At this time, this region has fallen under the dominion of Craterus, Alexander the Great's skilled and most experienced general. This realm is strategically located to control the rich coastal areas of the Eastern Meditterranean.

    Historical Fate: Craterus fell in battle near the Hellespont in 321 BC fighting Eumenes, a general loyal to Periccas. Within a decade, Greece had fallen under the control of the King of Macedonia, Cassander. By 196 BC, the region was under the control of the Roman Empire.

    Symbol: Apollo

  19. Macedonia:
  20. The homeland of Alexander the Great, Macedonia fields the finest infantry in Europe. Its soldiers are tough, well-trained and disciplined, and although many take service with other kingdoms in the Eastern Mediterranean, a large number are available for recruitment in the Macedonia homeland. At this time, Macedonia is ruled by the elderly Antipater, experienced general of Alexander the Great. Macedonia is well positioned to dominate the Balkan region and beyond.

    Historical Fate: Antipater was succeeded by his son, Cassander, who eventually conquered Greece and other regions of the mediterranean. Macedonia engaged in 4 wars against Rome from 215 to 148 BC, after which it was annexed as a Roman province.

    Symbol: Star of Vergina

  21. Illyria:
  22. This conglomeration of Illyrian tribes sent forces to accompany Alexander the Great during his conquests of the Persian empire. With Alexander's death, new prospects have arrived for expanding the borders of the Illyrian kingdom. The region is known for its pirates and excellent sailors, as well as warlike hilltribes.

    Historical Fate: Illyria entered a period of expansion after Alexander's death, and raided the coasts of the Adriatic as pirates. Eventually this provoked Roman ire, and part of the region was overrun in the Illyrian wars of 229 and 219 BC. The region was divided into 4 client states and later incorporated into the Roman empire as a province.

    Symbol: Serpent

  23. Etruscans:
  24. The Etruscans are a highly developed civilization thriving in Northern Italy in the Po valley and to the north, consisting of numerous city-states grouped into a large confederacy. The kingdom is allied to numerous alpine Gallic tribes that serve in its armies. Though Etruscan civilization once stretched across central Italy, the cities in the north remain strong, and many of its leaders look to reconquering the south and expanding into Cisalpine Gaul.

    Historical Fate: The Etruscans engaged in a series of wars with Gallic tribes to the west, Massilia, and Rome. After several battles, the Etruscan cities gradually fell under Roman domination

    Symbol: Gorgon

  25. Rome:
  26. Rome is the dominant power in central Italy, but directly controls only a small territory. The city of Rome has a large and growing population, and the young Republic can rely on a small network of italian tribal allies for support. The Roman legions are not as well trained or equipped as those of Alexander the Great's successors in the East, but its armies are still formidable and well-led. Rome must find a way to deal with its arch-foe the Samnites if it wishes to conquer Italy.

    Historical Fate: Rome managed to expand gradually across Italy, fighting wars with numerous enemies, defeating them one by one and incorporating them into a growing empire that eventually ruled the entire Mediterranean region.

    Symbol: Eagle

  27. Latin Federation:
  28. This is a league of Greek cities in the south of Italy, lead by Tarentum. The federation seeks to expand into Sicily, where Carthage also has ambitions. The Latin Federation consists of several powerful city-states, and seeks to work with Rome or against her to guard its independence and expand its frontiers.

    Historical Fate: The Latins joined against Rome during the Samnite Wars, but with Rome against Carthage during the first Punic War. During this period the Greek cities were gradually subdued one by one and incorporated into the Roman Empire.

    Symbol: Trident of Poseidon

  29. Western Gaul:
  30. The Gauls are a group of loosely allied Celtic tribes in the region of modern-day France. These barbarian warriors often fight in the nude, and are fierce warriors, gathering the heads of slain enemy as trophies.

    Historical Fate: The Gauls ruled a wide but disorganized realm. Gallic tribes invaded Macedonia and moved as far as central Anatolia (renaming the region Galatia). The tribes were finally subdued by Caesar by 50 BC, after a ten-year long campaign.

    Symbol: Celtic Dragon

  31. Insubre Tribe (Transalpine Gaul):

This region of northern Italy is ruled by Celtic tribes, lead by the Insubres. In War, these tribes are ferocious enemies, having sacked Rome and ravaged much of Italy 6 decades previously.

Historical Fate: The celtic tribes of Northern Italy fell into conflict with Rome. Their strength was greatly diminished after being defeated by Roman forces at Telamnu in 222 BC. However, as Hannibal crossed the Alps on his way to Italy, his success stirred the Gauls once more and many joined him against Rome. Cisalpine Gaul wouldn't be fully pacified until Hannibal's defeat; and the rest of Gallia Transalpina until the arrival of Caesar in the mid 1st century BC.

Symbol: Beli Mawr the Sun God

Warships doth be essential for supremacy at sea.

Chapter 9: Advice

"What to do when youíre new"

Here is a checklist of things to do when youíve got your first turn.

  1. Examine the country you are now the leader of. Work out what youíd like to conquer first. But you donít know what your neighbours are up to, soÖ
  2. Send emails to all your neighbours, to all their neighbours if youíre really keen, send an email to every player in the game if you want! Try to work out who you want to work with, and who you want to conquer. Youíve got some time to finalise this decision, but itís never too early to consider the possibilities. If you donít write, other players may consider you hostile. Your first email shouldnít be long - more than a page generally means youíre babbling, but you might like to open discussions about how the independents will be divided between you, whether you want an alliance immediately, and maybe suggest a move against a fellow neighbour in the turns to come. Take the initiative. When youíve made up your mind what you want to doÖ.
  3. Open your turn; youíll be in the HQ screen. Offer alliances to those you want to befriend. Ignore the rest of the options. You shouldnít be giving away passage rights at this stage, you can already accept gifts from any player, you donít need to send ambassadors as you already know everyoneís email address, and you shouldnít be giving away your provinces or gold. On to the mapÖ.
  4. All your troops are in garrisons. Thatís no use to you, you want to expand. You should be able to conquer two or three neighbouring independents in your first turn. So form a new unit in each of your provinces, and transfer your troops from the garrison to the unit. Put the foot soldiers in the lower ranks, and the cavalry into the fourth or fifth rank. Leave the retreat level at 5 Ė youíre not going to retreat from battling independents, surely? Compare your force with the neighbouring independent. If your force has significantly more combat power and hits, you are almost certainly going to win. So go ahead, have a fight. Order your army to move into the neighbouring province. You can order two armies to hit the same neighbouring province Ė let your forces gang up on your independent foe, teach him a lesson about why he should be in your realm. J
  5. If youíre planning a move overseas in the first turn, make sure you load and unload in the same turn, and take out an independent. The first few turns are all about grabbing independents.
  6. Make sure you build more troops. Click on the garrison of your city provinces, then click on "recruit soldiers" and scroll through the options of what you can build. Work out if you want troops that will defend a border, or assault a foe. Archers make great garrisons, but the most expensive troops you can buy are usually the best purchase, because theyíll be very powerful, and you want to expand Try to get some infantry to work with your cavalry Ė cavalry are expensive to replace, whereas infantry can often take more hits and are cheaper to replace.
  7. Consider building a commander Ė if youíre royalty. Donít worry so much about building fortifications yet, your first priority is to expand. Be aware that attacking a province with defences is going to be significantly harder than one which is not. Donít worry about building ships, either; you can build them in another turn or two Ė even if shipping is going to be a vital component of your gameplay, you still need the resources to pay for them. Donít pillage your own lands. To get a little more goldÖ.
  8. Go to the Messages Screen, and make an announcement. Say a little something about how nice it is to be here, ask for everyone to send you a message, speak of your incredibly peaceful intentions for EuropeÖ. J Maybe do a little roleplay. This is all very normal. Try not to say anything that will offend the other players, or tip them off regarding your military intentions. Leave that for later.
  9. Go to the Game Screen, and click on "save turn", exit the Diploware, and email your saved turnfile off to the GM. Done!
  10. Wait until the GM sends you your next turnfile. Try not to be anxious.

Here are some ideas to consider regarding strategy, and how to play a strong game.

Think Long Term:

The most successful players are those that have long-range plans. Although things probably wonít go exactly as you planned, it is best to think several turns down the road. The events of 1 turn will not decide the outcome of the game, so you can afford an unexpected lost troop here or there. Victory will be decided over the long haul.

Pillage what you canít annex:

You can gain income from any province you pillage. This is useful if you do not expect to own a province for a long time, or if you have Commoner status. Commoners should annex only their most valuable provinces, and pillage the others. It takes a unit with at least 10 combat to pillage.

Expand Quickly:

Early in the game, there are many opportunities to expand into neighbouring provinces. But negotiate with your neighbours, to avoid an early war. Try to divide the provinces in a way that makes your valued neighbours happy.

Put Your Worst Troops Up Front:

Each army has a number of ranks. Use these to place your worst troops (that you can afford to lose) in the lowest numbered ranks (like Rank 1 or 2). Keep your best troops in the back (in Rank 4 or 5). Troops will fight the same in any rank, so you can keep your valuable hitters in the rear, screened by your fodder troops.

Use Armies Together:

For hitting a tough foe, it is best to do so with overwhelming force. The fewer the rounds of battle, the less casualties you will have. So, try to wipe him out in the first round. You can send armies from multiple directions to converge at the battlefield. Just remember to make sure that they all have enough Move Points to make it, and you Hold Position if needed to synchronize their movement. Whether your forces are in 1 army or 2 armies, it wonít matter for taking losses. For example, if you have an army #1with 5 troops in rank 1, and army#2 with 1 troop in rank 2, army#1 will lose all of its troops first (the ranks work together). This works the same way with your allies (if you have an Alliance with another realm, your troops will also take losses as if you were in the same realm). With this in mind, beware of an ally asking you to help in an attack, while he puts all of his troops in the rear ranks, so that you will take all of the casualties!

Build Troops Wisely:

Each realm has various troops available to it. All are useful. Troops with more Move Points can move into a friendly province and attack on the same turn. So, you can build them as reinforcements for an attack you will make. Slower troops are not able to move and attack the same turn (it takes 1 Move Point to move through a friendly province, and you need 2 to attack an enemy province). Also, use the heavy defensive troops in front. This can result in not sustaining losses during a battle. For example, a Man-at-Arms has 2 hit points. If you were in a battle with only Man-at-Arms in Rank#1, and received 3 hits, you would only lose 1 Man-at-Arms (the other hit would not affect you). The Heavy Infantry has a special advantage for this. Balance your attacks with enough hitting power in the rear ranks with enough cheap troops in the front ranks. Also, remember that when you have a large number of troops, upkeep costs will become a significant expense. If you are going to maintain a large force for a while that wonít see action, it is better to build the more expensive heavy defensive troops (like a Man-at-Arms or Heavy Infantry, for example). This is because the upkeep is half the cost for the equivalent battle strength in weaker troops.

Maintain Secrecy:

Beware to whom you tell your plans to. Your trusted ally may be a double-agent for the opposition. Also, turns may possibly be delayed due to circumstances beyond the GMís control. If this should occur, turnfiles may (but not necessarily) be accepted after the deadline. So, beware of telling anyone anything about your plans until AFTER you have received your new turn. If you divulge your plans, they may find their ways to the ears of your sworn enemies, who may then send in a late turnfile that could possibly be accepted. Usually, turns will not be accepted, but again, this is a matter of the GMís discretion.

Send Your Turn In Early & Often:

You can send in a turn early, and you can send another turn in later if you change your plans. Of course, try not to send in 10 turns, because this will get a little old for the GM. But, 2 or 3 turns are acceptable. Getting that first turn in early could make a big difference if you should forget (or if you face a power outage that prevents you from getting your turn in later). In the long run, 1 missed turn will have very little effect on your success. Time and time again, it has been proven that those who are most successful are those who consistently work to improve their position over the long haul. History teaches that 1 lost battle means little to a skilled, intrepid leader who has the endurance and fortitude to fight on (for example, Alfred the Great, George Washington, all of the victorious powers in the world wars, etc.) This is the spirit of sportsmanship that PBeM games are all about.

JB: This page is well worth printing out. It shows things like, "Why doesnít my alliance take effect at the start of the turn before my troops start moving into my allyís lands?" and "Why canít I walk through my allyís lands Ė he just ordered passage rights for me!"

First Events:

War Declared

Acceptance Changed

Passage Rights Changed

New Armies Formed

New Fleets Formed

Various Administrative Actions Performed

Same Location Transfers Occur

Troops Reassigned to Ranks

Disbanding/Salvaging Troops

Movement Events:

Transfers Happen

Armies Prepare to Board Foreign Fleets

Fleets Load Armies

Fleets Set Sail

Homeless Fleets Depart

Sea Battle Are Fought

Fleet Storage Checked

All Armies Unloaded onto Provinces

Armies March

Defend Fortifications Option Changed

Cross-border Battles Are Fought

Land Battles are Fought

Province Ownership Changes

Provinces are Pillaged

Movement Events Repeat

Final Events:

Province Damage Increases

Gold Sent

Upkeep Paid

Pillaged Gold Received

Gold from GM (Special Cases Only)

Troops Built

Commanders Hired

Provinces Annexed

Province Annexation Declines

Construction Happens

Gold Decay

Structures Razed

Regions Claimed

Region Revenue Gained

Province Revenue Gained

Provinces Gifted

Proclamations Income

Province Damage Repaired

Peace Established

Alliances Cancelled

Alliances Formed

Info Sharing Changes

Client States Revolt from their Patrons

Patrons Dismiss Client States

Client-Patron Relations Established

Espionage Occurs

Realm Limits Checked

Defeated Realms Removed

Turn Events Are Complete

Bad things doth happen to good people.

Chapter 10: Frequently Asked Questions

Here are some questions that have been asked, which may answer questions that you have:

Q: Is there a colour map available for me to print out and plan my moves?

A: No. But, you could do this by:

  1. Zoom the map out with the magnifying glass.
  2. Click the Tool button on the map. Turn off all friendly and foreign units (turn these back on when you are done).
  3. Then, do screen captures of the map menu. You do a screen capture by pressing "Print Screen", then opening your art program and pasting.
  4. Paste all your screen captures together in your art program into 1 big file.
  5. Print it and show off your handiwork to impress friends and colleagues.

Some day some kind soul will upload this to the discussion group. Until then, we are all on our own.

Q: Is there some really neat way that I can see if all my orders will work as I want them to?

A: Yes! Click on the last button in your toolbar Ė it looks like a scroll Ė and it will give you a detailed listing of what will happen in each segment of the game. At the bottom it will tell you of any problems that the program will have with your orders.

Q: Are there any upgrades available?

A: Yes Ė go to http://www.agegames.co.uk/
This allows you to select the phase to load units on.

Q: I am worried that a neighbor is about to go to war with me.  Can I give a unit an order to march into one of his territories on the supposition that he wages war on me first? 

A: Yes! If he doesn't, then he's still neutral, and your army will "bounce" because you can't march into neutral territory without permission. 

Q: Can I follow that "just in case" invasion order with the "real" moves I want my unit to perform, so that the bounce costs me nothing (or something), and then I move as normal in the same phases I would otherwise move if I had NOT put in the invasion order? 

A: You canít give "just in case" orders.  All orders you give will be followed.  Itís like you send a written set of orders to each unit, and you canít change that once they are on the move for the season.

Q: The box which lets you choose which phase an army is loaded on is grayed out i.e. it canít be selected and it is always set to loading after movement.  How can this be fixed?

A: When you first go to load, you can see the current planned phase.  This will be Phase 0.  For example undo all of your fleet actions.  Now, look at your unit plan.  At the bottom, you can see that you are loading on Phase 0 (like zero hour on D-Day), which means this loading will happen before Phase 1.  Load an army, then select to Move somewhere.  On your unit plan, you will see that the load army happens before moving (because you loaded on Phase 0).  Now select to load another army.  You can either select to load on Phase 1 (after the movement happens), or on Phase 2 (before Phase 2 movement happens).  Select to load on Phase 2.  Then, make another move action.  Now, unload your army somewhere.  Now, you have:
Load (Phase 1 before movement)
Move (Phase 1)
Load (Phase 2 before movement)
Move (Phase 2)
Unload (Phase 2 after movement)

Q: I am having problems reading the file attachment you sent me (dg9N02.new). It come up as a word document, and is not allowing me to translate it into any other format, nor moving the file elsewhere. Please assist.

A: Each player is sent their results as a file attachment (a .new file). Do not try to open this file from your mail program. Just save it somewhere on your computer (remember where it is). First, open your Diploware. Then select "load turn", and then select the file "dg9N02.new". If you are using a mail program, just select "Save File", donít try to open it with a different program.

Q: One of the realms in my game does not seem to be replying to emails, what should I do?

A: Some people are not interested in diplomacy, and no one has to reply to email messages. Also, sometimes players drop out of the game for various reasons, the average is about 12% as time goes on, and itís just a normal part of the game process. A Realm without an active player represents a domain in a state of civil unrest, which is not able to pursue their global conquest goals. If the nation is viable, the GM will attempt to get a replacement player. The GM is likely to do so if a player doesnít send in the first turnfile of the game, or if he misses two consecutive turns during the game.

Q: In places where land masses are quite close together across seas, can troops cross between them just by marching?

A: Clicking on any location will show the adjacent locations.

Q: Another player gave me all his lands before quitting the game. Now another person has been given control of that countryís troops Ė and lands. What is going on?

A: I know this is disappointing, but if a ruler attempts to give away all of his provinces and disband all his forces, then his lesser nobles will overthrow him in a palace coup (that would be an unchivalrous and cowardly act, and all Europe would despise the perpetrator). In that case, his orders wonít happen, and he will be dethroned, tortured, drawn and quartered, beheaded, and finally burned at the stake.

Q: I'm having trouble loading my army onto my fleet. Here is the situation:
1. I have a unit that I just combined with a weight of 15. (2 H.Cav, 5 Hvy Infantry, 2 archers, and two siege machines)
2. I have a fleet I just combined with a total weight limit of 15.
3. I noticed that the weight of the army is not showing on the Army display scroll on the bottom of the map.
4. I move to the English Channel.
5. I go to unload army and it has a choice of English Army 7, which isn't the army I sent there. I donít have an English army 7.
6. Then after I look the army and notice that it hasn't moved anywhere! What am I doing wrong?
A: Your unit numbers are shown on the far left on the unit list.  So, F is fleet, A is army, and G is garrison.  So, A7 is Army 7, which is Kings Army.  The name isn't shown on the unload troops menu, just the army
number.  I think I will change this though.  So, I believe everything is working fine, just that the unit number is shown instead of the unit name.When you make orders, your forces won't actually move, as you are just writing your orders down, which will be sent by courier and messenger to your forces, who will then follow them.  An army that will load and then unload won't have any orders, but the fleet will, and the army will do what the fleet wants.

Q: Can you please clarify to me how pillage works? They way I see it, I can station any unit (except a Siege machine) in a province and then pillage it every other round (e.g. Round 1 pillage, Round 2 let it repair, Round 3 pillage, Round 4 let it repair, etc.), so that I get the province's income every other turn. Is this correct? Is there a chance of revolt due to pillaging? Of failure to pillage (even having combat > 10)?
A: You can pillage every turn.  The damage of a province will affect the revenue (as indicated in the rulebook).  You need to have combat of at least 10 to pillage.  Under 10, it will fail, 10 or more it will
succeed.  It will never revolt.

Q: When I cede a province, independents gain control. Do they create armies immediately? Can I cede a province and pillage it in the same turn?
A: No enemy forces will be created.

Q: What happens if two neutrally aligned kingdoms simultaneously invade an independent province? Who fights whom? Do they both fight the independents and then fight each other or is there a three fronts battle?
A: The two neutrals will each attack the independents.  You only attack realms you are at war with.

Q: Is it possible to load an army in a fleet, sail somewhere then unload the army in enemy territory in the same turn?
A: Yes.

Q: Setting all marines in Rank 1 and all ships in Ranks 2-5 would mean that all marines should be destroyed in order for damage for my ships, right?
A: Yes.

Q: I suspect another player is cheating. What should I do?
A: Report your reasons to the GM.

Q: In the rules it says:
"Send Gold: This is for all realms, and is to send a gift of gold to that Realm. You must own a garrison within 7 locations of the recipient for this to succeed, or the gold won't be sent."
Does this mean, that you have to have passage rights to each and every province between the two? Example Hungary wants to send money to France, what restrictions are there for this example?

A: This will be hard to send overland with a route filled by foreign realms, but you can use sea zones if there is no enemy fleet in them.  To use a province though, you need passage rights (or special permission) for all provinces in between.  This is because you will need to be sending a caravan through those locations.

Q: Let's suppose I have 2 armies. Army #1 is actually a peasant on rank 1, retreat lvl 5.
Army #2 has many troops, on different ranks, having the lowest occupied rank 2 and retreat lvl 1.

I attack a territory with these 2 armies.

Round 1
Army #1: 0 hits
Army #2: 30 hits
Enemy Army #1: 40 hits
Army #2 retreats after the 1st round (it has no troops on rank 1). The battle continues.
Round 2
Army #1: 0 hits
Enemy Army #1: 35 hits
Now... I will only lose 1 peasant while my foe will take 30 hits. Is this right?

A: No. Your retreating troops will take the hits. Such is the fate of troops who bare their backs to the foe!

Q: If my army retreats to the territory where it came from, and this territory is attacked in the 1st phase
by another army, I will be in time to defend it, right?

A: No. In your first phase, you have left your territory, if someone takes it over in the first phase, then, when it comes time to retreat, you will not be able to retreat to it, as it no longer belongs to you. Ha!

Q: I noticed that an army must stop moving after fighting a battle. Does this apply to fleets as well?
A: Yes.

Q: I got the impression that only one phase of battle occurs in a turn. Is that right?
A: No. A battle goes from start to finish in one turn, no matter how many phases are required. Battles of 18 phases have occurred, all in a single turn, until a victory has been achieved.

Q: I had a question about commanders in battle.  The rules state two different things.  It says that commanders are taken last, "no matter what."  Then a few sentences later it says that if the commander is killed, other troops in the 5th rank fight like there is no commander. So, are commanders in sort of a 6th rank, and they are the last to be killed or just in the 5th rank and once the 5th rank is reached that can be
killed like any other troop?
A: Commanders are in the fifth rank. If you have other troops in the fifth rank, it is possible that the commander will be killed when there are no other troops in lower ranks. To ensure that your commander survives for a long as possible, donít put other troops in the fifth rank.

Q: My Question to you, is it your plan to have a player declare as soon as they reach victory conditions?
A: It is up to the victorious coalition to decide this.  Of course, if things are already decided on the map, and things are being dragged out unnecessarily, then I will require a conclusion.  But, things are fluid, it is possible that a coalition may break apart, so I am flexible about this.  If a person considers that the outcome of a game is a foregone conclusion, then I will permit him to join a new game also.

Q: What happens if I conquer an enemy territory, and his ships there have nowhere to flee to?
A: There is the normal capture chance of 10% for warships and 20% for merchant vessels.  Capturing can happen for an enemy fleet if you take over the province (whether ships are in a fleet or garrison doesnít
matter).  Ships in a garrison will form a fleet and attempt to flee.  Ships that cannot flee will either be captured (10% or 20% chance) or will be scuttled by the crew.

Q: What are the Victory Conditions?

A: To discover the victory conditions, click on this hyperlink:


Q: Whatís your rationale for the movepoints being the way they are?

A: The idea is that when invading, you pay a move cost of 2 because its unfamiliar territory, and you need to tread slowly to watch for ambushes, as well as the necessity of carrying supplies that would be more readily available in friendly territory.  If a battle happens in an enemy province, you wonít be able to move any further, because of again you are in enemy territory, and your force will be much more disorganized after the battle, with disorganized supplies, etc., in addition to a great deal of time needed to pacify the area and regroup.  On friendly territory, a battle has no move cost, because you are surrounded by friendly citizens, and supplies are assumed to be readily available, and no pacification of the area is needed.  So, battles on friendly territory have no move cost.

Q: Iím trying to load/unload twice in the game, but itís not working! Why not?
A: Before you write in the second load order, you must tell the fleet to hold position. Your orders should look like this:




Hold Position



Q: If two or three commanders are all present at the same battle, all fighting for the same side, will
a) all of their combat modifiers be totalled and used
b) only one commander be used, picked at random
A: Only the unit leader will modify the troops in his unit.

Q: If I give orders to build troops in a city and an enemy force takes it in the 1st move-phase and then, in the 2nd move-phase I take it back (so at the end of the movement, it belongs to me), then my troops will be build, right? I looked in the rulebook and it says that if you defend your city, your troops will be built (and I am sort of defending it :)
A: Yes, they should be built.

Q: Is there any logic to what commanders we get?  I have tried twice in a pirate place and both times got a merc with NO admiral skills.  Do certain races/locations have higher chances?  If I want an admiral is there any way to improve chances (I thought pirate city on an island would be high, but no  :-(  )
A: Itís random, and getting an admiral is unlikely, about 1 in 4 chance, although pirates have better admirals, and some races like dwarves have none.

Q: Can armies retreat to ships in amphibious assaults?
A: No, once they are unloaded, they are stuck and must fight to the death or retreat to a land province.

Q: Iíve become addicted to this game, what should I do?

A: As of yet, there is no 12 step program for Age of Conquest. It is very addicting, and you can feel better knowing you are not alone. At least itís better than being hooked on crack :).

The Sarmatians ruled a vast empire to the north of Mediterranean Europe

Chapter 11: Historical Notes

Here are some brief historical notes for those not familiar with this period of history, as well as a timeline, useful for comparing your exploits to those historically achieved by Rome.

The Celts:

The Greeks called them Keltoi; the Romans called them Gauls. This iron age culture introduced a distinctive style of Celtic art in a warlike society. They adopted a Greek writing style from the prosperous city state of Massilia, migrating into the Balkans and Spain, intermingling with the Iberians, produced a group of people known as the Celtiberian tribes. During the fifth and fourth century BC, several Celtic tribes migrated into Northern Italy, putting pressure upon the Etruscans city-states in Etruria (Tuscany), that allowed the Romans to conquered Etruscan neighbours. In 391 BC, the Gauls, badly mauled the Roman army, then sacked Rome. During the 3rd century BC, Macedonia and Thessaly (northern Greece) were overrun by the Celts. The Celts penetrated further south, where they attacked and looted Delphi in 279 BC.


Founded before 600 BC, this ancient city grew to become a major player in the trade from the west, eventually becoming leaders in the production of swords and iron implements. The city maintained good relations with local Celtic tribes who fought as allies in several conflicts. Carthage continually harrassed her shipping, especially when the cargo-laden ships passed the narrows between Siciliy and Carthage. The Etruscans, who controlled the land trade routes east of the Alps, also competed with Massilia for trade. Around 124 BC, the trade war came to a head, and Carthage formed an alliance with the Etruscans to destroy the city. The local Celtic tribal kings of Gaul were incited, being promised a larger share. The Massaliots called on Rome, then a small but up-coming power, for aid against the Gauls. As part of the agreement, Massilia became a client-state of Rome. In the Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome, Massilia sided with Rome. When Hannibal marched across the Alps, he avoided Massalia, entering the Alps further to the north.

Seleucid Empire:

After the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC, his empire was divided by his generals, the Diadochi. One of them was his friend Seleucus, who became king of the eastern provinces, including Phoenecia and areas tothe east. His kingdom had two capitals, Antioch in Syria, and Seleucia in Mesopotamia. Seleucus' reign lasted from 312 to 281, and he was succeeded by his descendants, who continued to govern this assembly of countries for more than two centuries. However, in the mid-240's, during a brief interregnum, the Seleucids started to lose territory in the east. In the southwest, the Seleucid kings fought several "Syrian wars" with the Egyptians. Later, the Seleucid king Antiochus III the Great was able to reconquer these territories, during a series of eastern wars between 209 and 204. In 196, he crossed the Hellespont in order to add Thrace to his empire. Seleucid influence in Europe, however, was something that the Romans could not allow to happen, and the inevitable war between the two superpowers broke out in 192. Antiochus received support from many Greek towns and help from the famous Carthaginian general Hannibal, but was defeated and forced to pay a tremendous sum of money. Moreover, the Seleucid empire lost its possessions in Anatolia. The tide was now turning against the Seleucid monarchy. In the west, Rome became too powerful to resist. At the same time, the Parni founded the Parthian empire, which snatched away the eastern provinces. The towns in Babylonia were captured, followed by further losses, then civil wars between rival factions of the Seleucid family. Eventually Rome made an end to the Seleucid kingdom, the the last king was dethroned in 64.

The Kingdom of Pontus (In the Game, the region of Cappadocia):

Mithridates, king of Pontus (reigned 120 to 63 BCE), the Romans found their most formidable enemy, save only Hannibal. In conquering Mithridates the Romans, almost against their wish, were forced to conquer most of the nearer Orient---especially all of Asia Minor and Syria---and to come face to face with Parthia. It was written of Mithridates: "Many times Mithridates had over 400 ships of his own, 50,000 cavalry, and 250,000 infantry, with engines and arms in proportion. For allies he had the king of Armenia and the princes of the Scythian tribes around the Euxine and the Sea of Azov and beyond, as far as the Thracian Bosphorus. He held communication with the leaders of the Roman civil wars, which were then fiercely raging, and with those who were inciting insurrections in Spain. He established friendly relations with the Gauls for the purpose of invading Italy. From Cilicia to the Pillars of Hercules he also filled the sea with pirates, who stopped all commerce and navigation between cities, and caused severe famine for a long time. In short, he left nothing within the power of man undone or untried to start the greatest possible movement, extending from the Orient to the Occident, to vex, so to speak, the whole world, which was warred upon, tangled in alliances, harassed by pirates, or vexed by the neighborhood of the warfare. Such and so diversified was this one war against Mithridates, but in the end it brought the greatest gain to the Romans; for it pushed the boundaries of their dominion from the setting of the sun to the river Euphrates."

Timeline of the Early Roman Empire:

(Note: The game begins at 322 BC, and each turn is equal to about 5 years)

753 BC Traditional Founding of Rome by Romulus and Remus, at this time the region is dominated by the Etruscans

750 BC Greek cities founded in Italy.

509 BC Overthrow of Etruscan kings, and establishment of the Roman Republic.

428 BC Rome conquers Fidenae, beginning a period of expansion into Central Italy.

390 BC Gauls invade Northern Italy, defeat a Roman army and sack Rome.

386 BC The combined Italian tribes, the Latins, Volscii, and Hernici are defeated by the Romans.

343 - 341 BC First Samnite War, Romans occupy northern Campania.

340 - 338 BC Great Latin War: Rome engages in War with the Greek cities of Southern Italy, allowing it to expand into Campania.

328 BC Etruria and Campania annexed.

326 - 304 BC Second Samnite War. The Etruscans of Northern Italy join with the Samnites against Rome. After a series of setbacks and defeats, Rome arises victorious and gains control over much of central Italy.

298 - 290 BC Third Samnite War. Rome secures Campania and much of Southern Italy, Gauls raid Rome from the north.

284 BC The Gauls invade Roman territory, inflicting a major defeat on Rome.

282 BC Rome conquers territory still held by the Gauls along the Adriatic, Roman Fleet destroyed by the leading Latin city of Tarentum.

282 - 275 BC War against King Pyrrhus of Epirus. Pyrrhus inflicts several heavy defeats upon Rome, at great cost to his own forces, until Phyrrus is forced to return to Greece.

272 BC Surrender of Tarentum.

270 BC Capture of Rhegium.

266 BC The remaining Latin cities in Southern Italy are reduced to client states, allowing Rome to secure the Italian peninsula.

264 - 241 BC The First Punic War between Rome and Carthage.

256 - 255 BC A Roman expeditionary force sent to Africa ends in disaster.

254 BC Capture of Panormus in Western Sicily.

247 BC Hamilcar Barca begins offensive in Sicily.

241 BC Peace with Carthage. Occupation of Sicily, which is made a Roman province.

238 BC Annexation of Sardinia and Corsica.

237 BC Carthage invades Eastern Hispania, and expands there under Hamilcar Barca

229 - 228 BC First Illyrian War - Romans start war with Queen Teuta of Illyria.

226 BC Treaty defining river Iberus (Ebro) as border of influence between Rome and Carthage.

225 BC Invading Gallic Insubres defeated in northern Italy.

221 BC The Spanish allied city of Saguntum appeals to Rome for help against Hannibal who succeeds to power in Carthaginian Spain.

219 BC Capture of town of Saguntum by Hannibal.

219 BC Second Illyrian War, ending in conquest of Illyria

218 - 202 BC Second Punic War. Hannibal crosses Alps and inflicts several disastrous defeats on Rome.

216 BC Hannibal marches through the district of Cannae into Campania, and begins to plunder and ravage the countryside.

213 BC Siege of Syracuse in Sicily begins.

213 BC Hannibal captured Tarentum.

211 BC Hannibal's march on Rome. Fall of Capua and Syracuse. Defeat of the Scipios in Spain.

211 BC Rome enters into an alliance with the Aetolians against Macedonia.

210 BC P. Cornelius Scipio (later Africanus) is given the command in Spain.

209 BC Recapture of Tarentum. Several military successes in Spain.

204 BC Scipio Invades Africa, Hannibal recalled to Carthage

202 BC Scipio defeats Hannibal at the Battle of Zama. End of the Second Punic War.

214 - 205 BC First Macedonian War, essentially ending in a stalemate.

200 - 197 BC Second Macedonian War.

192 - 188 BC Syrian War against Antiochus III of the Seleucid Empire.

191 BC Rome conquers and annexes what becomes known as the province of Cisalpine Gaul.

187 - 173 BC Ligurian Wars in Spain.

181 - 179 BC First Celtiberian War.

171 - 168 BC Third Macedonian War. Epirus is plundered. Macedonia occupied.

157 - 155 BC Campaigns in Dalmatia and Pannonia.

153 - 151 BC Second Celtiberian War.

150 BC Fourth Macedonian War.

149 - 146 BC The Third Punic War. Siege and destruction of Carthage. Africa annexed.

147 BC Macedonia annexed as a Roman province,

146 BC Achaean War: Roman wars against the league of Greek cities.

143 - 133 BC Third Celtiberian War (also called Numantine War).

129 BC Annexation of the Roman Asia Province.

129 BC The province of Illyria is annexed into the Empire.

124 BC War against Celtic tribes in Central Gaul.

122 - 121 BC The Gallic tribe of the Arverni are subjugated by Rome. Gallia Narbonensis made a province.

97 BC the island of Crete conquered.

96 BC The last Ptolemy ruler of Cyrenacia dies, and it is willed over to Rome.

95 BC Sulla is sent to Cappadocia to place King Ariobarzanes on the throne after he was deposed by King Mithridates of Pontus

93 BC Victory achieved over the Celtiberians in Spain.

91 - 88 BC Social War between Rome and its Italian allies .

98 BC Invasion of Pontus by Rome.

89 - 85 BC First Mithraditic War.

88 BC King Mithridates of Pontus invades Greece.

86 BC Mithridates defeated, and Athens conquered.

83 BC Second Mithrraditic War, Rome and Pontus agree to a new peace treaty.

74 - 64 BC Third Mithradatic War.

74 BC Creation of the new Roman province of Bithynia, later renamed Bithynia-Pontus. Cyrenaica also made a Roman province.

72 BC War with invading Thracian tribes

58 BC Cyprus annexed

58 - 51 BC Caesar's War against the Gauls, Gallic tribes in Central Gaul are reduced to a clients of Rome.

53 BC Gauls revolt from Rome under their leader Vercingetorix

30 BC Egypt is annexed as an imperial province of Rome.

At this time, Rome is no longer a Republic, but an Empire, its client states are converted to imperial provinces.

- End -